Purpose: We examined the influence of vigorous physical activity (VPA) bout frequency on bone strength accrual across adolescence, independent of total volume of VPA. Methods: We measured VPA (6 metabolic equivalents; total volume and bout frequency <5 min in duration) annually using waist-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) in 309 adolescents (9–20 y at baseline: 99, <13 y; 126, 13–18 y; 84, >18 y) over a maximum of 4 years. We applied finite element analysis to high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the distal tibia (8% site) to estimate bone strength (failure load; F.Load, Newtons). We fit a mixed effects model with maturity offset (years from age at peak height velocity) as a random effect and sex, ethnicity, tibia length, lean body mass, and VPA (volume and bout frequency) as fixed effects. Results: VPA volume and bout frequency were positively associated with F.Load across adolescence; however, VPA volume did not predict F.Load once VPA bout frequency was included in the model. Participants in the upper quartile of VPA bout frequency (∼33 bouts per day) had 10% (500 N) greater F.Load across adolescence compared with participants in the lowest quartile (∼9 bouts per day; P = .012). Each additional daily bout of VPA was associated with 21 N greater F.Load, independent of total volume of VPA. Conclusion: Frequent VPA should be promoted for optimal bone strength accrual.
Leigh Gabel, Heather M. Macdonald, Lindsay Nettlefold and Heather A. McKay
Gavin Breslin, Diana Gossrau-Breen, Naomi McCay, Gillian Gilmore, Lindsay MacDonald and Donncha Hanna
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and wellbeing in children, and to further explore the extent to which this may vary by gender and weight status.
A representative sample of 1424 9- to 11-year-olds completed a self-report measure of physical activity, the Child Health and Illness Profile, KIDSCREEN, and a self-esteem scale. Body Mass Index (BMI) measurements were also obtained.
24% of children achieved the recommended level of 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) per day, with more boys than girls achieving this level. Children achieving the recommended level of MVPA scored significantly higher on measures of the Child Health and Illness Profile (F(5, 1354) = 5.03; P < .001), KIDSCREEN (F(3, 1298) = 4.68; P = .003), and self-esteem (F(1, 1271) = 18.73; P = .003) than less active children although the effect sizes were small (ηp 2 ≈ .01). Substantial gender differences in wellbeing were found reflecting gender specific behaviors and socialization. Weight status had negligible influence on wellbeing.
Children who meet the recommended guidelines of MVPA were more likely to have better wellbeing. When attempting to raise children’s physical activity levels consideration should be given to the specific relationships between wellbeing and physical activity.