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Exploring the Relationship Between Athletic Identity and Beliefs About Rehabilitation Overadherence in College Athletes

Robert C. Hilliard, Lindsey Blom, Dorice Hankemeier, and Jocelyn Bolin


Athletic identity has been associated with rehabilitation overadherence in college athletes.


To explore which constructs of athletic identity predict rehabilitation overadherence, gauge athletes’ views of the most salient aspect of their athletic participation, and understand their perceptions of the reasons they adhere to their rehabilitation program.


Cross-sectional, mixed methods.


University athletic training clinics and online.


Currently injured college athletes (N = 80; 51 male, 29 female).

Main Outcome Measures:

Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS), Rehabilitation Overadherence Questionnaire (ROAQ), and 2 open-ended questions about athletic participation and rehabilitation adherence.


Higher levels of athletic identity were associated with higher levels of rehabilitation overadherence (r = .29, P = .009). Hierarchical multiple regression used on AIMS subscales to predict ROAQ subscales did not reveal a significant model for the subscale “ignore practitioner recommendations.” However, a significant model was revealed for the subscale “attempt an expedited rehabilitation,” F 5,73 = 2.56, P = .04, R 2 = .15. Negative affectivity was the only significant contribution to the equation (β = 0.33, t = 2.64, P = .01). Content analysis revealed that bodily benefits, sport participation, personal achievement, social relationships, and athlete status were perceived to be the most important aspects of being an athlete. The themes of returning to competition, general health, and relationship beliefs were identified as the major factors for adhering to a rehabilitation program.


Negative affectivity accounted for a significant but low amount of variance for rehabilitation overadherence, suggesting that athletic trainers should pay attention to personal variables such as athletic identity that might influence the rehabilitation process. Using the knowledge of why athletes adhere to their rehabilitation and what is most important to them about being an athlete, athletic trainers can use appropriate interventions to facilitate proper rehabilitation adherence.

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Assessment in Youth Sport: Practical Issues and Best Practice Guidelines

Brandonn S. Harris, Lindsey C. Blom, and Amanda J. Visek

Assessment is an important element to the present and future of sport psychology (McCann et al., 2002), both in science and in practice. Yet, few resources exist addressing the unique developmental parameters facing sport scientists and sport practitioners when it comes to conducting sound assessment across the athletic lifespan. Indeed, this aspect of the literature remains particularly sparse with respect to youth sport assessment (Noble, 2011). Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the practical issues and best practice guidelines pertaining to assessment during the provision of sport psychology services to children and adolescent athletes.

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Doing Sport Psychology: A Youth Sport Consulting Model for Practitioners

Amanda J. Visek, Brandonn S. Harris, and Lindsey C. Blom

While there are significant benefits to be gleaned from the delivery of sport psychology services to youth athletes, there does not appear to be a sport psychology consulting model that adequately addresses the unique needs and organizational structure of a youth sport population. The authors have both integrated and extended the current paucity of literature in an attempt to provide sport psychology practitioners with an inclusive youth sport consulting model. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to introduce the Youth Sport Consulting Model (YSCM) which serves as an educational framework for guiding and supporting sport psychology practitioners in the implementation and delivery of sport psychology services for young athletes and their sport organizations.

Open access

Coaches’ Perceived Knowledge of the National Standards for Sport Coaches: Insights into Coach Development

Lindsey C. Blom, Steven R. Wininger, Rebecca Zakraj sek, and Kurtis Kirkpatrick

To help develop consistent training for coaches, the National Association for Sport and Physical Education created the National Standards for Sport Coaches (NSSC), which consists of eight domains and 40 standards. The purpose of this study was to examine high school coaches’ perceived knowledge related to the NSSC, continuing education, and sources of feedback. Information was gathered from 162 male and female team sport coaches from Mississippi and Kentucky. Four main findings emerged: 1) coaches perceived themselves to be above average in all 40 standards; 2) there were no significant differences between states of Kentucky and Mississippi for perceived knowledge in any domain 3) a difference in perceived knowledge based on years of coaching was found for Domain 5: Teaching and Communication; and 4) coaches reported most frequently using assistant coaches, their self, athletic directors, and athletes as sources of coaching feedback.