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Objectification in Sport Media: Influences on a Future Women’s Sporting Event

Lindsey Darvin and Michael Sagas

Gendered processes in the sport industry often perpetuate male dominance and female inferiority. While these gendered occurrences have been well documented, the outcomes of such processes are underexplored. Under the guidance of objectification theory and the production–reception relationship, the authors investigated the influence of objectification in sports-media outlets’ coverage of a female sporting event for a national sample of U.S. consumers (N = 225). In addition, given the lack of coverage directed toward female sporting events, the current study investigated the influence of previous viewership on consumer behaviors for a future women’s sporting event. Findings suggest that processes of objectification influence both men’s and women’s consumer behaviors and that previous viewership influences future consumer-behavior motives. Furthermore, objectified images and language did not adversely affect future consumer behaviors for those who had previously viewed a similar women’s sporting event. Sport-media and communications professionals alike can leverage these relationships.

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Gender Differences in Careers and Publications Within the Sport Management Academy

Daniel Sailofsky, Madeleine Orr, and Lindsey Darvin

Sport management programs are essential pathways by which aspiring professionals in the sport industry achieve their university education. Although a substantial segment of sport management scholarship has focused on driving for higher rates of diversity, equity, and inclusion in the sport industry, less attention has been paid to the sport management academy. In this study, we examine the gender representation of full-time faculty positions, publications, and research methodologies in sport management. Our results show that men are employed in higher numbers overall. In the 329 sport management programs studied, the percentages of women employed at each level are assistant professor 46.8%, associate professor 39.5%, and full professor 37%, suggesting a drop-off aligned with the concept of career derailment or a time lag in reaching equity in the discipline. Women are also less published in top sport management journals (Journal of Sport Management, European Sport Management Quarterly, and Sport Management Review). Implications of these findings are discussed, as well as future research directions.

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Socialization to Careers in Intercollegiate Athletics: A Comparison of Men and Women

Meg G. Hancock, Alicia Cintron, and Lindsey Darvin

In recent years, the field of sport management has witnessed a flurry of research on the career experiences of women in sport organizations. The perceived gendered nature of work and subsequent segregation of positions in a sport organization implies men and women pursue or align career paths based on gender. There are few studies, however, that explore how men and women select a career in sport management. This paper employed Vocational Anticipatory Socialization theory as a framework for exploring vocational interests, entry into intercollegiate athletic administration, and the role of gender in career selection. Thirty-four men and women serving in NCAA Division I intercollegiate athletic administration roles were interviewed. Findings suggested that social relationships, early career experiences, and career interests and values were critical factors in the socialization process. The position in which a person entered the field of intercollegiate athletics often dictated the career path. There is limited evidence that gender influenced career paths. Implications for practice and future research are also discussed.

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Beyond the Glass Ceiling: Sport Management Students’ Perceptions of the Leadership Labyrinth

Meg G. Hancock, Lindsey Darvin, and Nefertiti A. Walker

Sport management undergraduate and graduate programs have gained popularity throughout the United States and around the world. Despite this, women are still underrepresented in sport leadership positions. Although women have made it to the highest levels of sport leadership roles, studies suggest that advancement to such roles is more challenging for women than for men. Extant literature examines perceptions of women employed in the sport industry but fails to consider perceptions of prospective employees, specifically women, with career aspirations in sport business. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate sport management students’ perceptions of barriers to women’s success and upward mobility in the sport industry using the Career Pathways Survey. Results suggest that female sport management students perceive barriers to advancement in the sport industry, whereas male students do not perceive that barriers exist for women. Practical implications for the sport management classroom include developing male advocates, gender diversity and inclusion in guest presentations, and intentional internship placement.

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Motivations to Participate in Gaming and Esports: An Exploratory Study on The Influence of Participant Gender

Tara Q. Mahoney, Lindsey Darvin, and Ryan Vooris

The rapid growth of gaming and esports since 2015 demands an investigation of the habits of those who consume and engage with (i.e., participate, view, attend events) this emerging space. As previous research has suggested, women and men may engage with video games for different reasons, and to better understand this occurrence, the current study addresses whether their gaming and esports participation motivations vary. As a result, this exploratory study employed a survey design with a previously validated scale used to measure motivation differences between men and women for traditional sport and exercise spaces. In addition, insights from Hamari and Sjöblom study were used to construct the survey instrument and adapt it to gaming environments. The researchers used an exploratory factor analysis to examine the data and determine preliminary factors relating to esports and gaming motivations. Additionally, gender differences were also assessed. Implications for the gaming industry are discussed as well as future research directions.