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  • Author: Lindsey Eberman x
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Julianna Shappy

Edited by Lindsey E. Eberman

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Matthew Rivera, Lindsey Eberman, Kenneth Games and Cameron J. Powden

Context: The pectoralis minor (PM) is an important postural muscle that may benefit from myofascial techniques, such as Graston Technique® (GT) and self-myofascial release (SMR). Objective: To examine the effects of GT and SMR on PM length, glenohumeral total arc of motion (TAM), and skin temperature. Design: Cohort. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Twenty-six healthy participants (19 females and 7 males; age = 20.9 [2.24] y, height = 170.52 [8.66] cm, and weight = 72.45 [12.32] kg) with PM length restriction participated. Interventions: Participants were randomized to the intervention groups (GT = 12 and SMR = 14). GT and SMR interventions were both applied for a total of 5 minutes during each of the 3 treatment sessions. Main Outcome Measures: PM length, TAM, and skin temperature were collected before and after each intervention session (Pre1, Post1, Pre2, Post2, Pre3, and Post3) and at 1-week follow-up (follow-up). Separate intervention by time analyses of variance examined differences for each outcomes measure. Bonferroni post hoc analyses were completed when indicated. Significance was set a priori at P ≤ .05. Results: No significant intervention by time interactions were identified for PM length, TAM, or temperature (P > .05). No significant intervention main effects were identified for PM length (P > .05), TAM (P > .05), or temperature (P > .05) between the GT or SMR technique groups. Overall, time main effects were found for PM length (P = .02) and temperature (P < .001). Post hoc analysis showed a significant increase in PM length for both intervention groups at follow-up (P = .03) compared with Post2. Furthermore, there were significant increases in temperature at Post1 (P < .001), Post2 (P = .01), and Post3 (P < .001) compared with Pre1; Post2 was increased compared with Pre2 (P = .003), Pre3 (P < .001), and follow-up (P = .01); Post3 increased compared with Pre3 (P = .01) and follow-up (P = .01). Conclusion: Serial application of GT and SMR to the PM did not result in increases in PM length or TAM. Regardless of intervention, skin temperature increased following each intervention.

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Michelle Cleary, Daniel Ruiz, Lindsey Eberman, Israel Mitchell and Helen Binkley


We present a case of severe dehydration, muscle cramping, and rhabdomyolysis in a high school football player followed by a suggested program for gradual return to play.


A 16-year-old male football player (body mass = 69.1 kg, height = 175.3 cm) reported to the ATC after the morning session on the second day of two-a-days complaining of severe muscle cramping.

Differential Diagnosis:

The initial assessment included severe dehydration and exercise-induced muscle cramps. The differential diagnosis was severe dehydration, exertional rhabdomyolysis, or myositis. CK testing revealed elevated levels indicating mild rhabdomyolysis.


The emergency department administered 8 L of intravenous (IV) fluid within the 48-hr hospitalization period, followed by gradual return to activity.


To our knowledge, no reports of exertional rhabdomyolysis in an adolescent football player exist. In this case, a high school quarterback with a previous history of heat-related cramping succumbed to severe dehydration and exertional rhabdomyolysis during noncontact preseason practice. We provide suggestions for return to activity following exertional rhabdomyolysis.

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Leamor Kahanov and Lindsey E. Eberman

Edited by Malissa Martin

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Lindsey Eberman, Heather Mata and Leamor Kahanov

Student acquisition of psychomotor skills in athletic training is diffcult, particularly those pertaining to non-orthopedic injuries and illnesses, which are less common in our patient populations. We provide examples of lesson plans to improve physical examination of the thorax and abdomen. Each lesson (the scratch test, utilization of a noise-immune stethoscope, tactile fremitus, and intent auscultation) allows students to engage in performance of the skill and expand contextual knowledge to enhance skill acquisition and learning.

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Lindsey E. Eberman, Jesse Moore and Timothy Demchak

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Mike J. Ediger

Edited by Lindsey E. Eberman

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Susan W. Yeargin, Sean M. Bowman, Lindsey E. Eberman and Jeffrey E. Edwards

During physical activities, youth consume fluids from various delivery methods that may influence hydration behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine the drinking efficiency of these different methods. Children’s fluid intake was more efficient when drinking from a cup compared with a bottle with no mouth contact and a water fountain, but not compared with a bottle with direct mouth contact. Drinking from the water fountain was the least effective compared with all other methods. Children drink more efficiently when using cups and water bottles with direct mouth contact as the delivery method compared with methods with no mouth contact.

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Dawn M. Minton and Lindsey E. Eberman

Edited by Michael G. Dolan

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Lindsey E. Eberman and Michelle A. Cleary

Edited by Monique Mokha