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Lindsy Kass and Roger Carpenter


To compare blood lactate concentration ([Bla]) at 15 s and 45 s during the 1-min rest period between each stage of an incremental test in rowers and to establish the validity of using interchangeable sampling times.


Seventeen male club rowers (mean ± SD, age 28.8 ± 5.7 years, height 186.9 ± 5.1 cm, body mass 85.4 ± 6.6 kg) performed an incremental rowing ergometer test, consisting of five stages of 4 min corresponding to approximately 80% HRmax. A 10-µL earlobe blood sample was collected from each subject at 15 s and again at 45 s in the final minute of each test stage and analyzed in duplicate. A maximum of 10 s was allowed for blood collection.


Statistical analysis using limits of agreement and correlation indicated a high level of agreement between the two [Bla] samples for all fve test stages (agreement >95%, confidence intervals [CI] = -0.5 to 1.5, r = .97, P < .05).


These results suggest that a sampling time between 15 s and 45 s may be recommended for the valid assessment of the [Bla] threshold in rowing performance monitoring. This extends the current sampling time of 30 s used by physiologists and coaches for National and club-level Rowers.

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Christopher Tack, Faye Shorthouse and Lindsy Kass

Aims/Objectives: To evaluate the current literature via systematic review to ascertain whether amino acids/vitamins provide any influence on musculotendinous healing and if so, by which physiological mechanisms. Methods: EBSCO, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase Classic/Embase, and MEDLINE were searched using terms including “vitamins,” “amino acids,” “healing,” “muscle,” and “tendon.” The primary search had 479 citations, of which 466 were excluded predominantly due to nonrandomized design. Randomized human and animal studies investigating all supplement types/forms of administration were included. Critical appraisal of internal validity was assessed using the Cochrane risk of Bias Tool or the Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Animal Experimentation Risk of Bias Tool for human and animal studies, respectively. Two reviewers performed duel data extraction. Results: Twelve studies met criteria for inclusion: eight examined tendon healing and four examined muscle healing. All studies used animal models, except two human trials using a combined integrator. Narrative synthesis was performed via content analysis of demonstrated statistically significant effects and thematic analysis of proposed physiological mechanisms of intervention. Vitamin C/taurine demonstrated indirect effects on tendon healing through antioxidant activity. Vitamin A/glycine showed direct effects on extracellular matrix tissue synthesis. Vitamin E shows an antiproliferative influence on collagen deposition. Leucine directly influences signaling pathways to promote muscle protein synthesis. Discussion: Preliminary evidence exists, demonstrating that vitamins and amino acids may facilitate multilevel changes in musculotendinous healing; however, recommendations on clinical utility should be made with caution. All animal studies and one human study showed high risk of bias with moderate interobserver agreement (k = 0.46). Currently, there is limited evidence to support the use of vitamins and amino acids for musculotendinous injury. Both high-quality animal experimentation of the proposed mechanisms confirming the physiological influence of supplementation and human studies evaluating effects on tissue morphology and biochemistry are required before practical application.