Background: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a method of collecting behavioral data in real time. The purpose of this study was to examine EMA compliance, identify factors predicting compliance, assess criterion validity of, and reactivity to, using EMA in a workplace intervention study. Methods: Forty-five adults (91.1% female, 39.7 [9.6] y) were recruited for a workplace standing desk intervention. Participants received 5 surveys each day for 5 workdays via smartphone application. EMA items assessed current position (sitting/standing/stepping). EMA responses were time matched to objectively measured time in each position before and after each prompt. Multilevel logistic regression models estimated factors influencing EMA response. Cohen kappa measured interrater agreement between EMA-reported and device-measured position. Reactivity was assessed by comparing objectively measured sitting/standing/stepping in the 15 minutes before and after each EMA prompt using multilevel repeated-measures models. Results: Participants answered 81.4% of EMA prompts. Differences in compliance differed by position. There was substantial agreement between EMA-reported and device-measured position (κ = .713; P < .001). Following the EMA prompt, participants sat 0.87 minutes more than before the prompt (P < .01). Conclusion: The use of EMA is a valid assessment of position when used in an intervention to reduce occupational sitting and did not appear to disrupt sitting in favor of the targeted outcome.
Katie Weatherson, Lira Yun, Kelly Wunderlich, Eli Puterman and Guy Faulkner
Lira Yun, Elaine M. Ori, Younghan Lee, Allison Sivak and Tanya R. Berry
Mass media campaign is an integral tool to influence physical activity participant behaviors. The purpose of the systematic review was to identify the effectiveness of mass media campaigns in promoting physical activity.
Literature update from January 2010 to September 2016 was conducted in 13 databases. Full text articles of 128 were screened, and 23 articles (18 campaigns) were selected from the initial 1692 articles.
All campaigns involved mass media advertisements to promote physical activity to general individuals (n = 2), adults (8), children (4), older adults (2), and parents of children (n = 2). The campaign evaluation designs included clustered RCT (2), cohort (3), quasi-experimental (9), and cross-sectional (9). Eight articles demonstrated significant campaign impact on proximal, 6 on intermediate, 5 on distal outcomes, and 6 on distal change based on either proximal or intermediate outcome.
The current review assessed the outcome evaluation of mass media physical activity campaigns that varied in their respective scope, target population and outcomes measured to identify individual changes at proximal, intermediate, and distal level. Results from formative and process evaluation as well as dose-response and cost-effective analysis are suggested to provide valuable evidence for campaign stakeholders and planners.