Assessing young children’s perceptions is commonly done one on one with an interviewer. An app enables several children to complete the scale at once. The objective was to describe an app to assess children’s perceptions of movement competence and then present consistency of child responses. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence (PMSC) has fundamental movement skill (FMS; e.g., catch) and play items (e.g., cycling). The PMSC android app has the same items and images but children complete it independently with audio. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) assessed i) test-retest reliability using the PMSC app on 18 items in 42 children (M = 6.8 yrs) and ii) consistency between measures for 13 FMS items in 44 children (M = 8.5 yrs). Over time (M = 6.9 days, SD = 0.35) the full PMSC had good consistency (ICC = 0.79, 95% CI 0.64–0.88) and the FMS items had moderate consistency (ICC = 0.68, 95% CI 0.47–0.81). There was good agreement between the app and interview for FMS items (ICC = 0.86, 95% CI 0.76–0.92). Locomotor items were less consistent. The PMSC app can generally be recommended. Future research could investigate how different forms of digital assessment affect children’s perception.
Lisa M. Barnett and Owen Makin
Vaimanino Rogers, Lisa M. Barnett and Natalie Lander
This study aimed to explore the relationship between fundamental movement skills (FMS) and multiple levels of physical self-perception among early adolescent girls. The Victorian FMS Teachers’ Manual was used to measure actual FMS. Perceptions were measured using the Physical Self-Perception Profile and the Perceived Movement Skill Competence Scale. Pearson’s correlations assessed the association between FMS and each level of physical self-perception. General linear models, adjusting for potential confounders, were conducted to explore the relationship between FMS and multiple levels of physical self-perception. A total of 173 Australian girls (M = 12.48 years, SD = .34) had complete data. Results found positive moderate and significant associations between actual FMS and physical self-perception, perceived sports competence, and, to a lesser degree, perceived FMS. Actual and perceived object control skill were also moderately associated, but there was no association between actual and perceived locomotor skill. After adjusting for potential confounders, FMS remained a significant predictor of each level of perception in each model, except for locomotor skill. These findings are important for future intervention development to improve both actual and perceived FMS, particularly in object control skill, which has been identified as a predictor of subsequent physical activity.
Lisa M. Barnett and J.D. Goodway
Vitor Lopes, Lisa Barnett and Luís Rodrigues
The purpose is to explore relationships among moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior (SB), and actual gross motor competence (MC) and perceived motor competence (PMC) in young children. Data were collected in 101 children (M age = 4.9 ± 0.93 years). MVPA was measured with accelerometry. Gross MC was assessed with the Portuguese version of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. PMC was evaluated with the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children. Regressions were used to determine predictive relationships related to the following research questions: (a) Can gross MC predict perceived motor competence, (b) can actual and perceived gross MC predict MVPA, and (c) can actual and perceived gross MC predict SB? Results showed no association between gross MC and PMC and between these constructs and MVPA and SB. This lack of association in the early ages is probably due to the young children’s cognitive inability to make accurate self-judgments and evaluations. A child might have low levels of actual gross MC but perceive her- or himself as skillful.
Natalie Jayne Lander, Lisa Michele Barnett, Helen Brown and Amanda Telford
The purpose of this study was to investigate instruction and assessment of fundamental movement skills (FMSs) by Physical Education (PE) teachers of Year 7 girls. Of 168 secondary school PE teachers, many had received little FMSs professional development, and although most assessed student FMSs proficiency, the quality of assessment was variable. Neither years of experience nor confidence influenced the quality of assessment tools used; however, greater FMSs training improved assessment practice regularity. Teachers more recently out of preservice were more confident in demonstrating FMSs. The results suggest that FMSs education for teachers should be a priority inclusion in both the training of preservice teachers and the ongoing professional development of in-service teachers.
Natalie J. Lander, Lisa Hanna, Helen Brown, Amanda Telford, Philip J. Morgan, Jo Salmon and Lisa M. Barnett
Competence in fundamental movement skills (FMSs) is positively associated with physical activity, fitness, and healthy weight status. However, adolescent girls exhibit very low levels of fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency.
In the current study, interviews were carried out with physical education teachers to investigate their perspectives of: (i) the importance and relevance of teaching FMSs to Year 7 girls, and (ii) the factors influencing effective FMS instruction.
There were two major findings in the data: Year 7 was perceived to be a critical period to instruct girls in FMSs; and current teaching practices were perceived to be suboptimal for effective FMS instruction.
Apparent deficits in current FMS teaching practice may be improved with more comprehensive teacher training (both during physical education teacher education (PETE) and in in-service professional development) in pedagogical strategies, curriculum interpretation, and meaningful assessment.
Fotini Venetsanou, Irene Kossyva, Nadia Valentini, Anastasia-Evangelia Afthentopoulou and Lisa Barnett
This study aimed to adapt the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence for Young Children (PMSC) in Greek and assess its reliability and face, construct, and concurrent validity in 5- to 9-year-old Greek children. Face validity was conducted with 20 children, whereas a larger sample (N = 227) was used to examine construct validity. Two subsamples (n = 38; n = 142) were used to investigate test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Greek version of the PMSC (PMSC-GR) with the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PSPCSA) and the physical competence subscale (PCS), respectively. The panel of experts confirmed the clarity and concept integrity of the PMSC-GR. Temporal stability was confirmed for PMSC-GR total score and both Locomotor (LOC; ICC = .80; 95% CI, .62–.89) and Object Control (OC; ICC = .91; 95% CI, .82–.95) subscales. Appropriate internal consistency was found for the total score as well as for the LOC and OC scores (polychoric correlations: PMSC-GR, .80; LOC, .60; OC, .76). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of a one-factor and two-factor model. Scores of the PMSC and the PSPCSA-PCS were correlated to a low level. The PMSC-GR is valid and reliable for Greek children and appears to measure a different construct to general physical perceived competence.
Ali Brian, Farid Bardid, Lisa M. Barnett, Frederik J.A. Deconinck, Matthieu Lenoir and Jacqueline D. Goodway
Purpose: The present study examined the motor competence of preschool children from Belgium and the United States (US), and the influence of perceived motor competence on actual motor competence. A secondary objective was to compare the levels of motor competence of Belgian and US children using the US norms of the Test of Gross Motor Development, Second Edition (TGMD-2). Methods : All participants (N = 326; ages 4–5 years) completed the TGMD-2 and the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence for Young Children. Results : Belgian children performed significantly higher on actual object control and locomotor skills than US children. However, both Belgian and US children scored significantly worse on the TGMD-2 when compared to the US norm group from 1997–1998. Furthermore, perceived motor competence was significantly related to actual object control skills but not locomotor skills. Conclusion : The present study showed cross-cultural differences in actual motor competence in young children. The findings also indicate a secular downward trend in childhood competence levels, possibly due to a decrease in physical activity and increase in sedentary behavior. Future research should consider conducting an in-depth exploration of physical activity contexts such as physical education to better understand cross-cultural differences in motor competence.
Yucui Diao, Cuixiang Dong, Lisa M. Barnett, Isaac Estevan, Jing Li and Liu Ji
The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Pictorial Scale for Perceived Movement Skill Competence (PMSC) in Chinese children. A total of 241 children (girls, n = 119) aged 4 to 9 years old (6.9 ± 1.53) participated. One week later two random subsamples were selected. One (n = 52) was to determine face validity and the other (n = 56) was to determine test-retest reliability. Internal consistency analyses through Cronbach’s alpha and construct validity by confirmatory factor analysis were conducted. Results showed (a) face validity was better for object control skills; (b) internal consistency was adequate for each subscale and all 13 skills (alpha range from .73–.87); (c) Intra-Class Correlations were good for locomotor (.62), object control (.73), and all 13 skills (.78); and (d) the modified two-factor model had a good fit (CFI = .96, TLI = .94, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .05). The Chinese version of the PMSC is appropriate to use; however, considering the participants were only from Shanghai, results may not be generalizable to all Chinese children.
Maike Tietjens, Dennis Dreiskaemper, Till Utesch, Nadja Schott, Lisa M. Barnett and Trina Hinkley
Children’s self-perception of motor skills and physical fitness is said to be an important mediator between skills and physical fitness on the one hand and physical activity on the other hand. An age-appropriate self-perception scale is needed to understand the development and the differentiation of the physical self-concept of children and its components. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) to develop a pictorial scale of physical fitness for pre-school children (3–6 years old), and (2) to describe the face validity and feasibility of the scale. The study sample included 27 kindergarten children. In order to determine the psychometric properties, validity was assessed by administrating the Pictorial Scale for Physical Self-Concept in Kindergarten Children (P-PSC-C) compared with children’s fundamental movement skill competency (Test of Gross Motor Development [TGMD]-3; six locomotor and seven object-control skills), height, weight, and demographics. The face validity was favorable. Expectable negatively skewed response distributions were found in all items. Medium correlations with related constructs and with sport enjoyment were found. The results indicate that the new scale is usable for kindergarten children. Future validation studies are needed so that the new scale can contribute to the research about physical self-concept development in kindergarten children.