Assessing young children’s perceptions is commonly done one on one with an interviewer. An app enables several children to complete the scale at once. The objective was to describe an app to assess children’s perceptions of movement competence and then present consistency of child responses. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence (PMSC) has fundamental movement skill (FMS; e.g., catch) and play items (e.g., cycling). The PMSC android app has the same items and images but children complete it independently with audio. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) assessed i) test-retest reliability using the PMSC app on 18 items in 42 children (M = 6.8 yrs) and ii) consistency between measures for 13 FMS items in 44 children (M = 8.5 yrs). Over time (M = 6.9 days, SD = 0.35) the full PMSC had good consistency (ICC = 0.79, 95% CI 0.64–0.88) and the FMS items had moderate consistency (ICC = 0.68, 95% CI 0.47–0.81). There was good agreement between the app and interview for FMS items (ICC = 0.86, 95% CI 0.76–0.92). Locomotor items were less consistent. The PMSC app can generally be recommended. Future research could investigate how different forms of digital assessment affect children’s perception.
Lisa M. Barnett and Owen Makin
Vaimanino Rogers, Lisa M. Barnett, and Natalie Lander
This study aimed to explore the relationship between fundamental movement skills (FMS) and multiple levels of physical self-perception among early adolescent girls. The Victorian FMS Teachers’ Manual was used to measure actual FMS. Perceptions were measured using the Physical Self-Perception Profile and the Perceived Movement Skill Competence Scale. Pearson’s correlations assessed the association between FMS and each level of physical self-perception. General linear models, adjusting for potential confounders, were conducted to explore the relationship between FMS and multiple levels of physical self-perception. A total of 173 Australian girls (M = 12.48 years, SD = .34) had complete data. Results found positive moderate and significant associations between actual FMS and physical self-perception, perceived sports competence, and, to a lesser degree, perceived FMS. Actual and perceived object control skill were also moderately associated, but there was no association between actual and perceived locomotor skill. After adjusting for potential confounders, FMS remained a significant predictor of each level of perception in each model, except for locomotor skill. These findings are important for future intervention development to improve both actual and perceived FMS, particularly in object control skill, which has been identified as a predictor of subsequent physical activity.
Lisa M. Barnett and J.D. Goodway
Natalie J. Lander, Lisa Hanna, Helen Brown, Amanda Telford, Philip J. Morgan, Jo Salmon, and Lisa M. Barnett
Competence in fundamental movement skills (FMSs) is positively associated with physical activity, fitness, and healthy weight status. However, adolescent girls exhibit very low levels of fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency.
In the current study, interviews were carried out with physical education teachers to investigate their perspectives of: (i) the importance and relevance of teaching FMSs to Year 7 girls, and (ii) the factors influencing effective FMS instruction.
There were two major findings in the data: Year 7 was perceived to be a critical period to instruct girls in FMSs; and current teaching practices were perceived to be suboptimal for effective FMS instruction.
Apparent deficits in current FMS teaching practice may be improved with more comprehensive teacher training (both during physical education teacher education (PETE) and in in-service professional development) in pedagogical strategies, curriculum interpretation, and meaningful assessment.
Yucui Diao, Cuixiang Dong, Lisa M. Barnett, Isaac Estevan, Jing Li, and Liu Ji
The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Pictorial Scale for Perceived Movement Skill Competence (PMSC) in Chinese children. A total of 241 children (girls, n = 119) aged 4 to 9 years old (6.9 ± 1.53) participated. One week later two random subsamples were selected. One (n = 52) was to determine face validity and the other (n = 56) was to determine test-retest reliability. Internal consistency analyses through Cronbach’s alpha and construct validity by confirmatory factor analysis were conducted. Results showed (a) face validity was better for object control skills; (b) internal consistency was adequate for each subscale and all 13 skills (alpha range from .73–.87); (c) Intra-Class Correlations were good for locomotor (.62), object control (.73), and all 13 skills (.78); and (d) the modified two-factor model had a good fit (CFI = .96, TLI = .94, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .05). The Chinese version of the PMSC is appropriate to use; however, considering the participants were only from Shanghai, results may not be generalizable to all Chinese children.
Ali Brian, Farid Bardid, Lisa M. Barnett, Frederik J.A. Deconinck, Matthieu Lenoir, and Jacqueline D. Goodway
Purpose: The present study examined the motor competence of preschool children from Belgium and the United States (US), and the influence of perceived motor competence on actual motor competence. A secondary objective was to compare the levels of motor competence of Belgian and US children using the US norms of the Test of Gross Motor Development, Second Edition (TGMD-2). Methods : All participants (N = 326; ages 4–5 years) completed the TGMD-2 and the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence for Young Children. Results : Belgian children performed significantly higher on actual object control and locomotor skills than US children. However, both Belgian and US children scored significantly worse on the TGMD-2 when compared to the US norm group from 1997–1998. Furthermore, perceived motor competence was significantly related to actual object control skills but not locomotor skills. Conclusion : The present study showed cross-cultural differences in actual motor competence in young children. The findings also indicate a secular downward trend in childhood competence levels, possibly due to a decrease in physical activity and increase in sedentary behavior. Future research should consider conducting an in-depth exploration of physical activity contexts such as physical education to better understand cross-cultural differences in motor competence.
Lisa M. Barnett, Avigdor Zask, Lauren Rose, Denise Hughes, and Jillian Adams
Fundamental movement skills are a correlate of physical activity and weight status. Children who participated in a preschool intervention had greater movement skill proficiency and improved anthropometric measures (waist circumference and BMI z scores) post intervention. Three years later, intervention girls had retained their object control skill advantage. The study purpose was to assess whether at 3-year follow up a) intervention children were more physically active than controls and b) the intervention effect on anthropometrics was still present.
Children were assessed at ages 4, 5, and 8 years for anthropometric measures and locomotor and object control proficiency (Test of Gross Motor Development-2). At age 8, children were also assessed for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (using accelerometry). Several general linear models were run, the first with MVPA as the outcome, intervention/control, anthropometrics, object control and locomotor scores as predictors, and age and sex as covariates. The second and third models were similar, except baseline to follow-up anthropometric differences were the outcome.
Overall follow-up rate was 29% (163/560), with 111 children having complete data. There were no intervention control differences in either MVPA or anthropometrics.
Increased skill competence did not translate to increased physical activity.
Isaac Estevan, Javier Molina-García, Gavin Abbott, Steve J. Bowe, Isabel Castillo, and Lisa M. Barnett
Perceived motor competence is a subdomain of perceived physical competence that is related to the practice of physical activity and motor skills. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence (PMSC) assesses perceived motor competence (locomotor, object control, and active play skills) in children. The purpose of the present study was twofold: first, to translate the PMSC into Spanish and to test the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) and construct validity of the aforementioned scale in a Spanish sample; second, to analyze children’s perception of motor competence according to gender. Two hundred and forty-seven typically developed children (51% boys) between 5 and 11 years old participated in the study. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable. Children’s test-retest reliability was between high and excellent. A Bayesian Structural Equation approach showed the original hypothesized three-factor model was a poor fit, but a two-factor model (i.e., locomotion and object control) was an adequate fit. Boys reported higher perception in the object control and overall motor competence, but similar perception in locomotor skills to girls. The PMSC can provide a useful way to study the nature and impact of motor competence perception in young children of Spanish-speaking communities.
Lisa M. Barnett, Leah E. Robinson, E. Kipling Webster, and Nicola D. Ridgers
The purpose was to determine the reliability of an instrument designed to assess young children’s perceived movement skill competence in 2 diverse samples.
A pictorial instrument assessed 12 perceived Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) based on the Test of Gross Motor Development 2nd edition. Intra-Class Correlations (ICC) and internal consistency analyses were conducted. Paired sample t tests assessed change in mean perceived skill scores. Bivariate correlations between the intertrial difference and the mean of the trials explored proportional bias.
Sample 1 (S1) were culturally diverse Australian children (n = 111; 52% boys) aged 5 to 8 years (mean = 6.4, SD = 1.0) with educated parents. Sample 2 (S2) were racially diverse and socioeconomically disadvantaged American children (n = 110; 57% boys) aged 5 to 10 years (mean = 6.8, SD = 1.1). For all children, the internal consistency for 12 FMS was acceptable (S1 = 0.72, 0.75, S2 = 0.66, 0.67). ICCs were higher in S1 (0.73) than S2 (0.50). Mean changes between trials were small. There was little evidence of proportional bias.
Lower values in S2 may be due to differences in study demographic and execution. While the instrument demonstrated reliability/internal consistency, further work is recommended in diverse samples.
Maike Tietjens, Dennis Dreiskaemper, Till Utesch, Nadja Schott, Lisa M. Barnett, and Trina Hinkley
Children’s self-perception of motor skills and physical fitness is said to be an important mediator between skills and physical fitness on the one hand and physical activity on the other hand. An age-appropriate self-perception scale is needed to understand the development and the differentiation of the physical self-concept of children and its components. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) to develop a pictorial scale of physical fitness for pre-school children (3–6 years old), and (2) to describe the face validity and feasibility of the scale. The study sample included 27 kindergarten children. In order to determine the psychometric properties, validity was assessed by administrating the Pictorial Scale for Physical Self-Concept in Kindergarten Children (P-PSC-C) compared with children’s fundamental movement skill competency (Test of Gross Motor Development [TGMD]-3; six locomotor and seven object-control skills), height, weight, and demographics. The face validity was favorable. Expectable negatively skewed response distributions were found in all items. Medium correlations with related constructs and with sport enjoyment were found. The results indicate that the new scale is usable for kindergarten children. Future validation studies are needed so that the new scale can contribute to the research about physical self-concept development in kindergarten children.