Lise Gauvin and Attila Szabo
This study examined the effects of 1-week exercise deprivation on the mood and subjectively perceived physical symptoms of college students highly committed to exercise; it employed the experience sampling method (ESM). Male and female subjects (N=21) filled out questionnaires four random times a day in response to the tone of a pager for 35 days. Subjects who were randomly assigned to the experimental condition refrained from exercising between Days 15 and 21 of the procedure whereas those in the control group maintained their regular levels of physical activity. Results indicated that subjects in the experimental group reported more symptoms than at baseline and in comparison to the control group during and following the week of exercise withdrawal. Results are interpreted in light of Pennebaker's (1982) competing cue, selective attention, and schema hypotheses. Suggestions for the application of the ESM in exercise and sport psychology are provided.
Lise Gauvin and W. Jack Rejeski
This research describes the development and validation of a measure designed to assess feeling states that occur in conjunction with acute bouts of physical activity—the Exercise-Induced Feeling Inventory (EFI). The EFI consists of 12 items that capture four distinct feeling states: revitalization, tranquility, positive engagement, and physical exhaustion. The multidimensional structure of the EFI is supported by confirmatory factor analysis. The subscales have good internal consistency, share expected variance with related constructs, are sensitive to exercise interventions, and appear responsive to the different social contexts in which activity may occur. After describing the psychometric properties of the EFI, several directions for theory-based research are proposed.
Lise Gauvin and John C. Spence
In this paper, milestones of psychological contributions to the study of exercise and fitness are summarized, the results of an archival study of empirical research published in 10 periodicals since 1990 are presented, and challenges facing researchers in this area are discussed. Psychological studies on exercise and fitness began to emerge in significant numbers in the late 1970s and have frequently been conceptualized with health outcomes in mind. Current research is published in almost equal numbers in physical activity and health periodicals, but researchers based in academic units related to physical activity publish less frequently in health-related journals. Aerobic exercise is studied more often than other types of exercise, and exercise adherence and the role of exercise for mental health are studied most frequently. Some challenges facing researchers include developing effective publication strategies, engaging in advocacy for the relevance of exercise and fitness, and bridging the gap between research and practice.
Caitlin Mason, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Cora L. Craig and Lise Gauvin
This study investigates the degree to which the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is consistent across income groups in Canada and whether it can be explained by differentials in physical activity.
A sample of 17,852 adults in the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey was followed for 13 y for mortality.
After adjusting for several confounders, there was a dose-response relationship between self-rated health and all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality. This relationship persisted across levels of income. Physical activity was inversely related to mortality; however, the risk of mortality associated with low self-rated health did not differ significantly between activity groups.
Physical activity does not appear to be a significant mediating or moderating factor in the relationship between self-rated health and mortality.
Ariane Bélanger-Gravel, Lise Gauvin, Daniel Fuller and Louis Drouin
Favorable public opinion and support for policies are essential to favor the sustainability of environmental interventions. This study examined public perceptions and support for active living policies associated with implementing a public bicycle share program (PBSP).
Two cross-sectional population-based telephone surveys were conducted in 2009 and 2010 among 5011 adults in Montréal, Canada. Difference-in-differences analyses tested the impact of the PBSP on negative perceptions of the impact of the PBSP on the image of the city, road safety, ease of traveling, active transportation, health, and resistance to policies.
People living closer to docking stations were less likely to have negative perceptions of the effect of the PBSP on the image of the city (OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.4−0.8) and to be resistant to policies (OR = 0.8; 95% CI, 0.6−1.0). The likelihood of perceiving negative effects on road safety increased across time (OR = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2−1.8). Significant interactions were observed for perceptions of ease of traveling (OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.4−0.8), active transportation (OR = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4−1.0), and health (OR = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4−0.8): likelihood of negative perceptions decreased across time among people exposed.
Findings indicate that negative perceptions were more likely to abate among those living closer to the PBSP.
Tracie A. Barnett, Lise Gauvin, Cora L. Craig and Peter T. Katzmarzyk
We investigated the population trajectory of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in adults age 18 to 60 y (n = 881), who were recruited in 1981 for the Canada Fitness Survey and followed-up through the Campbell’s Survey on Well-Being (1988) and the Physical Activity Longitudinal Study (2002/04).
Data on involvement in LTPA were collected by questionnaire and used to estimate average daily energy expenditure (EE) (kcal · kg-1 · d-1) during leisure time. Growth trajectory modeling was used to describe the overall population trajectory of LTPA and the extent to which average trajectories varied between sub-groups defined by age, sex, and education.
The population trajectory of LTPA over time was modified by baseline age, but not by sex or by level of education. Disparities in LTPA related to sex and education persisted over two decades.
This longitudinal investigation improves our understanding of the processes underlying patterns of LTPA in adults.
Fiona C. Bull, Lise Gauvin, Adrian Bauman, Trevor Shilton, Harold W. Kohl III and Art Salmon
Ariane Bélanger-Gravel, Marilie Laferté, Frédéric Therrien, François Lagarde and Lise Gauvin
Background: Evidence regarding the impact of physical activity (PA) communication campaigns among children is scarce. This study was aimed at examining the reach of the WIXX campaign and its impact on children’s PA beliefs and behaviors. Methods: This study adopted a pre–posttest design. Children (9–13 y old) were recruited using a random digit dialing procedure. Self-reported outcomes included PA beliefs, trying new PAs, and meeting PA guidelines. WIXX awareness and survey periods were the treatment variables. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the main effect of treatment variables and the time-specific impact of WIXX. Results: The campaign reached 80.3% of the children. Fully adjusted results showed that girls with high (odd ratio = 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.0–2.0) and moderate (odd ratio = 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.0–1.8) awareness were more likely to have tried new PAs. Results from the sensitivity analyses suggested that this positive result was due to strategies implemented during the second year of the campaign. No other significant association between exposure and outcomes was observed. Conclusions: The WIXX campaign was successful in reaching a significant proportion of children. Although some encouraging results were observed among girls, WIXX awareness was not associated with changes on the examined outcomes among boys.
Cora Lynn Craig, Lise Gauvin, Sue Cragg, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Thomas Stephens, Storm J. Russell, Lloyd Bentz and Louise Potvin
The health benefits of physical activity are substantial; however, the lifetime and environmental determinants of sedentary living are poorly understood. The purpose of this article is to outline the conceptual background and methods of the Physical Activity Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of a population- and place-based cohort. A secondary purpose is to report on the success of follow-up procedures.
A rationale for conducting a 20-y follow-up of a nationally representative population- and place-based cohort is developed based on the extant literature dealing with socio-environmental determinants of health and on current advancements in thinking about the determinants of involvement in physical activity. Then, methods of the 2002-04 PALS (n = 2511, nonresponse = 29.8%) that began with the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey are described. Descriptive data pertaining to the success of follow-up procedures are outlined.
There is general consensus around the relevance of examining lifetime and environmental determinants of physical activity involvement. Longitudinal data represent one source of information for disentangling the relative importance of these determinants. Examination of PALS follow-up data show that there was no selection bias for key individual- (physical activity, other lifestyle, health) and area-level (median income, housing) variables, although fewer respondents than nonrespondents smoked or were underweight at baseline. Some demographic groups were under- or over-represented among the eligible cohort, but not among participants.
The social epidemiological perspective emerging from PALS should help policymakers and public health practitioners make strides in changing socio-environmental factors to curb sedentary lifestyles and promote population health.