The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of grip width, chest depth, limb lengths, and bar path on the performance of a maximal bench press. Subjects were 24 experienced male weight trainers. Bench press performance was assessed at six different grip widths (G1–G6). Repeated-measures ANOVA with Tukey post hoc comparisons revealed that bench press strength values at the two moderate grip widths (G3 and G4) were significantly greater than either the narrow or wide grip widths. First-order partial correlations showed no significant relationship between strength values and anthropometric variables when adjusted for differences in body weight. Standard two-dimensional cinematographic procedures were used to film a subsample (n = 6) while bench pressing using G1, G3, and G6. The results of the statistical comparisons of bar path indicated that as grip width increased, the horizontal and vertical distance from the bar to the shoulder decreased.
Loree L. Wagner, Sharon A. Evans, Joseph P. Weir, Terry J. Housh and Glen O. Johnson
Terry J. Housh, Glen O. Johnson, Dona J. Housh, Jeffrey R. Stout, Joseph P. Weir, Loree L. Weir and Joan M. Eckerson
The purpose of the present study was to examine age-related changes in isokinetic leg flexion and extension peak torque (PT), PT/body weight (PT/BW), and PT/fat-free weight (PT/FFW) in young wrestlers. Male wrestlers (N = 108; age M ± SD = 11.3 ± 1.5 years) volunteered to be measured for peak torque at 30, 180, and 300° · s−1. In addition, underwater weighing was performed to determine body composition characteristics. The sample was divided into six age groups (8.1−8.9, n = 10; 9.0−9.9, n= 11; 10.0−10.9, n = 25; 11.0−11.9, n = 22; 12.0−12.9, n = 28; 13.0−13.9, n = 12), and repeated measures ANOVAs with Tukey post hoc comparisons showed increases across age for PT, PT/BW, and PT/FFW. The results of this study indicated that there were age-related increases in peak torque that could not be accounted for by changes in BW or FFW. It is possible that either an increase in muscle mass per unit of FFW, neural maturation, or both, contributes to the increase in strength across age in young male athletes.
Terry J. Housh, Rommie J. Hughes, Glen O. Johnson, Dona J. Housh, Loree L. Wagner, Joe P. Weir and Sharon A. Evans
The purpose of this investigation was to examine age-related differences in absolute and relative isokinetic shoulder strength of high school wrestlers. A total of 122 high school wrestlers (M age = 16.31±1.18 yrs) volunteered to be measured for arm flexion and extension strength at the shoulder joint using a Cybex II dynamometer at 30, 180, and 300°·s−1. The sample was divided into four age groups: 13.75−15.00 (n = 22), 15.08−16.00 (n = 27), 16.08−17.00 (n = 34), and 17.08−18.83 years (n = 39). The results of this study indicated significant increases in absolute and relative arm flexion and extension strength across age when covaried for BW and FFW. In addition, comparisons with previously published data indicated differences between muscle groups in the pattern of strength gains that were dependent upon the speed of muscular contraction and may have been influenced by fiber type distribution characteristics.