The purpose of this paper is to engage the reader in a conversation about justice imperatives in education, disability, and health. As counternarrative to structured majoritarian scholarship and positioned in the expressed intent of the National Academy of Kinesiology’s 90th annual meeting theme of Kinesiology’s Social Justice Imperative, we express feelings about the urgency for social justice in teacher education. To start, we operationally define social justice as advocacy, agency, and action. Next, we recommend the application of critical theoretical frameworks in conceptualizing and conducting research involving historically marginalized and minoritized populations (e.g., African American students). This conversation is theoretically grounded in intersectionality to offer a nuanced understanding of social constructions, such as ethnicity (e.g., African American) and race (e.g., Black), gender, culture, disability, and sociometric positioning regarding justice imperatives in education, disability, and health.
Samuel R. Hodge and Louis Harrison Jr.
Jr. Louis Harrison, Russell L. Carson, and Jr. Joe Burden
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the common assumption that teachers of color (TOC) are more culturally competent than White teachers by assessing physical education teachers’ cultural competency. A secondary purpose was to ascertain the possible differences in cultural competence levels of White teachers in diverse school settings versus those in more racially homogenous schools. One hundred and ninety physical education teachers from two states in the southeastern U.S. completed a demographic questionnaire and the Multicultural Teaching Competency Scale (MTCS) (Spanierman et al., 2006). The MTCS consists of two subscales; multicultural teaching knowledge (MTK), and multicultural teaching skills (MTS). MANCOVA analyses indicated significant differences with TOC scoring higher in both MTK and MTS than White teachers. Results also indicated that White teachers in city school settings scored significantly higher in MTK than those from more rural school. Results and implications for teacher preparation and professional development are discussed.
Dana D. Brooks, Louis Harrison Jr., Michael Norris, and Dawn Norwood
The primary purpose of this article is to engage in a dialogue regarding why faculty, students, and administrators should care about diversity and inclusion in kinesiology. Recent American population growth trends data clearly reveals an increase in ethnic minority populations, particularly Hispanics. American public schools and colleges are experiencing greater ethnic diversity, leading to increased diversity within our classrooms. A review of the literature quickly reveals a lack of clarity in defining the terms diversity and inclusion. Throughout the article we define these terms and at the same time identify barriers (on and off campus) to promoting and ensuring a diverse learning environment. Strong arguments are presented supporting the value of diversity within the academy, especially in kinesiology. The value of diversity in kinesiology is refected in scholarly publications, conference programming, awards recognition activities, and in the recruitment and retention of a diverse faculty and student population.
Samuel R. Hodge, Dana D. Brooks, and Louis Harrison Jr.
This article is divided into two major sections. First, the authors provided interpretations and conclusions about enhancing diversity in kinesiology based on the collection of articles for this Special Theme of the Kinesiology Review. There are six informative articles for this Special Theme on Diversity in Kinesiology that include Why We Should Care about Diversity in Kinesiology by Brooks, Harrison Jr., Norris, and Norwood; Diversity in Kinesiology: Theoretical and Contemporary Considerations by Hodge and Corbett; Creating an Inclusive Culture and Climate that Supports Excellence in Kinesiology by Lowrie and Robinson; Undergraduate Preparedness and Partnerships to Enhance Diversity in Kinesiology by Gregory-Bass, Williams, Blount, and Peters; Creating a Climate of Organizational Diversity—Models of Best Practice by Keith and Russell; and this final article. Second, we identify strategies and provided recommendations to increase the presence and improve the experiences of Black and Hispanic faculty and students in kinesiology programs.
Louis Harrison Jr., Albert Y. Bimper Jr., Martin P. Smith, and Alvin D. Logan
The African American male student-athlete occupies one of the most peculiar positions in American society. While lauded for their sport performance, they are often viewed as problematic in the broader society. While their performance generates millions of dollars for universities and the NCAA, for most, their labor often produces comparatively little personal gain. While they are recruited as student-athletes, they soon realize that the demands of their athletic commitment renders them athlete-students. Many outside of sport would argue that this is a choice and an informed decision. But we argue much of this is a consequence of the mis-education of the African American student-athlete. We examine this phenomenon through the lens of Critical Race Theory to provide an alternative view of the issues faced by African American student-athletes and suggest an alternative pedagogy that might be investigated to meet their needs.
Melinda A. Solmon, Amelia M. Lee, Donald Belcher, Louis Harrison Jr., and Lori Wells
Beliefs about gender appropriateness and conceptions of ability have been identified as powerful influences on beliefs about competence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of those two factors on competence beliefs in physical activity. Participants completed a survey about the sport of hockey, watched a video of a specific hockey skill, and then responded to questions about the skill. Males expressed more confidence in their ability to learn hockey than females, but females who perceived the activity to be gender neutral were more confident in their ability to learn hockey than females who believed the activity was predominantly for males. Participants’ explanations of their beliefs about gender appropriateness and confidence shed light on how competence beliefs are affected by perceptions of gender appropriateness and conceptions of ability.