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  • Author: Louise C. Mâsse x
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Louise C. Mâsse and Judith E. de Niet

Background:

Over the years, self-report measures of physical activity (PA) have been employed in applications for which their use was not supported by the validity evidence.

Methods:

To address this concern this paper 1) provided an overview of the sources of validity evidence that can be assessed with self-report measures of PA, 2) discussed the validity evidence needed to support the use of self-report in certain applications, and 3) conducted a case review of the 7-day PA Recall (7-d PAR).

Results:

This paper discussed 5 sources of validity evidence, those based on: test content; response processes; behavioral stability; relations with other variables; and sensitivity to change. The evidence needed to use self-report measures of PA in epidemiological, surveillance, and intervention studies was presented. These concepts were applied to a case review of the 7-d PAR. The review highlighted the utility of the 7-d PAR to produce valid rankings. Initial support, albeit weaker, for using the 7-d PAR to detect relative change in PA behavior was found.

Conclusion:

Overall, self-report measures can validly rank PA behavior but they cannot adequately quantify PA. There is a need to improve the accuracy of self-report measures of PA to provide unbiased estimates of PA.

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Andrew W. Tu, Allison W. Watts and Louise C. Masse

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parent and adolescent levels of physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep among a group of overweight and obese adolescents.

Methods:

Baseline data of parent–adolescent pairs who enrolled in a lifestyle modification intervention were analyzed for this study (n = 176). Participants completed questionnaires about their screen time (TV, video game, and computer time), wore an accelerometer for 8 days, and completed a sleep diary for 1 week. In total, 98 parent–adolescent dyads provided valid data for the analyses. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between parent and adolescent’s moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA), step counts, sedentary behaviors, and sleep duration. Analyses were split by weekday, weekday evening and weekend.

Results:

Parent–adolescent MVPA was significantly associated on weekdays (b = 0.18; SE = 0.08; β = 0.26), weekday evenings (b = 0.21; SE = 0.08; β = 0.28), and weekends (b = 0.29; SE = 0.12; β = 0.27). This study found associations between parent–child video game time on weekends (b = 1.10; SE = 0.49; β = 0.24) and computer time on weekdays (b = 0.42; SE = 0.19; β = 0.23). Adolescent sleep was associated with parental sleep on weekdays only (b = 0.38; SE = 0.09; β = 0.46).

Conclusions:

The findings warrant further investigation into the direction and mechanism of the relationship between parent and adolescent weight related behaviors.

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Cheryl Braselton Anderson, Louise C. Mâsse, Hong Zhang, Karen J. Coleman and Shine Chang

Background:

Little is known about differences in athletic self-concept that are related to ethnicity, gender, and overweight status, which may influence physical activity behavior.

Methods:

Children (N = 936) and adolescents (N = 1071) completed the Athletic Identity Questionnaire, measuring athletic appearance, competence, importance of activity, and encouragement from parents, teachers, and friends. Multivariate ANOVA assessed group differences and interactions on the 6 subscales.

Results:

Interaction effects were found in children (Ethnic × Gender; Ethnic × BMI), and ethnic, gender, and BMI (body mass index) main effects in adolescents. In children, Hispanic girls had lower appearance and competence ratings. Within weight categories, normal-weight Hispanic children had lower appearance and importance ratings compared with whites, and obese black children had lower importance ratings than obese whites and Hispanics. In adolescents, there were lower appearance and competence ratings among Hispanics and obese students, lower importance ratings among girls and Hispanics, and less parental encouragement in Hispanics. No gender, ethnic, or BMI differences on encouragement from teachers were found in either children or adolescents.

Conclusions:

More negative athletic self-perceptions and less parental encouragement were seen in minorities. Consideration of these factors will be important in interventions to promote physical activity.

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Kristiann Heesch, Louise C. Mâsse, Ralph F. Frankowski and Andrea L. Dunn

Background:

Interventions that teach strategies for integrating physical activity into a person’s daily routine are becoming more common. These interventions have been found to increase physical activity behavior, although the increases have not been large. The small to moderate changes in physical activity can result from participants having insufficient adherence to the intervention protocol to produce an intervention effect. Given that adherence is likely to affect the power to find a treatment effect, it should be tracked. This study examined changes in adherence over 6 months for a lifestyle physical activity intervention.

Methods:

Participants were 244 sedentary adults who took part in the Project PRIME lifestyle physical activity intervention. Adherence was assessed separately for a group-based intervention (PRIME G) and a telephone- and mail-based intervention (PRIME C). Markers of adherence were completion of homework, self-monitoring of physical activity, attendance at class (PRIME G only), and completion of monthly telephone calls (PRIME C only). Changes over time in adherence markers and differences between intervention groups for homework completion and adherence to self-monitoring were modeled with generalized estimating equations (GEE).

Results:

The probability of attending class, completing the telephone calls, and completing the homework decreased significantly over 6 months. Participants only self-monitored an average of 5 to 6 days each calendar month. Participants in the group-based intervention were more likely than those in the telephone- and mail-delivered intervention to complete the homework throughout the study.

Conclusions:

The findings suggest that individuals are willing to adhere with a telephone call protocol over 6 months. They are less willing to complete homework and attend class over this same time period. Most are not willing to self-monitor their lifestyle physical activities more than a few days a month.

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Barbara E. Ainsworth, Carl J. Caspersen, Charles E. Matthews, Louise C. Mâsse, Tom Baranowski and Weimo Zhu

Context:

Assessment of physical activity using self-report has the potential for measurement error that can lead to incorrect inferences about physical activity behaviors and bias study results.

Objective:

To provide recommendations to improve the accuracy of physical activity derived from self report.

Process:

We provide an overview of presentations and a compilation of perspectives shared by the authors of this paper and workgroup members.

Findings:

We identified a conceptual framework for reducing errors using physical activity self-report questionnaires. The framework identifies 6 steps to reduce error: 1) identifying the need to measure physical activity, 2) selecting an instrument, 3) collecting data, 4) analyzing data, 5) developing a summary score, and 6) interpreting data. Underlying the first 4 steps are behavioral parameters of type, intensity, frequency, and duration of physical activities performed, activity domains, and the location where activities are performed. We identified ways to reduce measurement error at each step and made recommendations for practitioners, researchers, and organizational units to reduce error in questionnaire assessment of physical activity.

Conclusions:

Self-report measures of physical activity have a prominent role in research and practice settings. Measurement error may be reduced by applying the framework discussed in this paper.

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Katie L. Morton, Julian Barling, Ryan E. Rhodes, Louise C. Mâsse, Bruno D. Zumbo and Mark R. Beauchamp

We draw upon transformational leadership theory to develop an instrument to measure transformational parenting for use with adolescents. First, potential items were generated that were developmentally appropriate and evidence for content validity was provided through the use of focus groups with parents and adolescents. We subsequently provide evidence for several aspects of construct validity of measures derived from the Transformational Parenting Questionnaire (TPQ). Data were collected from 857 adolescents (M age = 14.70 years), who rated the behaviors of their mothers and fathers. The results provided support for a second-order measurement model of transformational parenting. In addition, positive relationships between mothers’ and fathers’ transformational parenting behaviors, adolescents’ self-regulatory efficacy for physical activity and healthy eating, and life satisfaction were found. The results of this research support the application of transformational leadership theory to parenting behaviors, as well as the construct validity of measures derived from the TPQ.

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Louise C. Mâsse, Janet E. Fulton, Kathleen B. Watson, Susan Tortolero, Harold W. Kohl III, Michael C. Meyers, Steven N. Blair and William W. Wong

Background:

The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of 2 physical activity questionnaire formats—one that lists activities (Checklist questionnaire) and one that assesses overall activities (Global questionnaire) by domain.

Methods:

Two questionnaire formats were validated among 260 African-American and Hispanic women (age 40–70) using 3 validation standards: 1) accelerometers to validate activities of ambulation; 2) diaries to validate physical activity domains (occupation, household, exercise, yard, family, volunteer/church work, and transportation); and 3) doubly-labeled water to validate physical activity energy expenditure (DLW-PAEE).

Results:

The proportion of total variance explained by the Checklist questionnaire was 38.4% with diaries, 9.0% with accelerometers, and 6.4% with DLW-PAEE. The Global questionnaire explained 17.6% of the total variance with diaries and about 5% with both accelerometers and with DLW-PAEE. Overall, associations with the 3 validation standards were slightly better with the Checklist questionnaire. However, agreement with DLW-PAEE was poor with both formats and the Checklist format resulted in greater overestimation. Validity results also indicated the Checklist format was better suited to recall household, family, and transportation activities.

Conclusions:

Overall, the Checklist format had slightly better measurement properties than the Global format. Both questionnaire formats are better suited to rank individuals.

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Louise C. Mâsse, Teresia M. O’Connor, Andrew W. Tu, Allison W. Watts, Mark R. Beauchamp, Sheryl O. Hughes and Tom Baranowski

Background:

The purpose of this study was to compare the physical activity parenting practices (PAPPs) parents report using with the PAPPs incorporated in the published literature.

Methods:

PAPPs in the literature were identified by reviewing the content of 74 published PAPP measures obtained from current systematic reviews supplemented with a literature search. The types of PAPPs used by parents were identified by surveying a stratified sample of 134 Canadian and US parents of 5- to 12 year-old children. Items from the literature and parent responses were coded using the same coding scheme. Differences between the PAPPs emphasized by the parents and the literature were examined.

Results:

Parents significantly emphasized different issues than what is measured in the literature (P < .001). Parents emphasized more control (13.6% vs. 6.9%), modeling and teaching (13.2% vs. 9.2%), and structural strategies (32.2% vs. 28.6%) and less autonomy support (11.8% vs. 14.0%), logistical support (9.9% vs. 12.8%), and responsiveness strategies (19.3% vs. 28.5%).

Conclusions:

Physical activity practices most often employed by parents are not the ones emphasized in current measures. The extent to which putting more emphasis on the areas identified by parents will increase the predictive validity of the measures warrants further examination.