The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of concurrent verbal protocols to identify and map thought processes of players during a golf-putting task. Three novice golfers and three experienced golfers performed twenty 12-foot putts while thinking aloud. Verbalizations were transcribed verbatim and coded using an inductive method. Content analysis and event-sequence analysis were performed. Mapping of thought sequences indicated that experienced players’ cognitive processes centered on gathering information and planning, while beginners focused on technical aspects. Experienced players diagnosed current performance aspects more often than beginners did and were more likely to use this information to plan the next putt. These results are consistent with experienced players’ higher domain-specific knowledge and less reliance on step-by-step monitoring of motor performance than beginners. The methods used for recording, analyzing, and interpreting on-line thoughts of performers shed light on cognitive processes, which have implications for research.
Luis Calmeiro and Gershon Tenenbaum
Adam R. Nicholls, John L. Perry and Luis Calmeiro
Grounded in Lazarus’s (1991, 1999, 2000) cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotions, we tested a model of achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping. We predicted that precompetitive achievement goals would be associated with appraisals, appraisals with emotions, and emotions with coping in our model. The mediating effects of emotions among the overall sample of 827 athletes and two stratified random subsamples were also explored. The results of this study support our proposed model in the overall sample and the stratified subsamples. Further, emotion mediated the relationship between appraisal and coping. Mediation analyses revealed that there were indirect effects of pleasant and unpleasant emotions, which indicates the importance of examining multiple emotions to reveal a more accurate representation of the overall stress process. Our findings indicate that both appraisals and emotions are just as important in shaping coping.
Pedro Teques, Luís Calmeiro, Henrique Martins, Daniel Duarte and Nicholas L. Holt
The overall purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effects of parents’ coping strategies on the relationship between parents’ emotional intelligence and sideline verbal behaviors during their children’s soccer games. Participants were 232 parents (120 mothers and 110 fathers) of youth soccer players age 9–13 years. Observations in situ were carried out at 30 soccer games during a soccer tournament. At the end of the game, parents were approached and asked to complete the Emotional Intelligence Scale and the Brief COPE scale. Structural-equation-modeling analyses revealed that adaptive and maladaptive coping mediated the relationship between regulation of emotion and parents’ praise/encouragement, and negative and derogatory comments during the game. In addition, game result moderated the relationships between emotional intelligence, coping strategies, and parent behaviors. Emotional regulation and adaptive coping may promote desirable parent sideline behaviors and reduce undesirable behaviors.