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Vitor Lopes, Lisa Barnett and Luís Rodrigues

The purpose is to explore relationships among moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior (SB), and actual gross motor competence (MC) and perceived motor competence (PMC) in young children. Data were collected in 101 children (M age = 4.9 ± 0.93 years). MVPA was measured with accelerometry. Gross MC was assessed with the Portuguese version of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. PMC was evaluated with the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children. Regressions were used to determine predictive relationships related to the following research questions: (a) Can gross MC predict perceived motor competence, (b) can actual and perceived gross MC predict MVPA, and (c) can actual and perceived gross MC predict SB? Results showed no association between gross MC and PMC and between these constructs and MVPA and SB. This lack of association in the early ages is probably due to the young children’s cognitive inability to make accurate self-judgments and evaluations. A child might have low levels of actual gross MC but perceive her- or himself as skillful.

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Vítor Pires Lopes, Linda Saraiva, Celina Gonçalves and Luis P. Rodrigues

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between actual (AMC) and perceived (PMC) motor competence in Portuguese children. A total of 200 children (111 [0.55%] girls) aged 5–9 years old participated in the study. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence (PMSC) and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD2) were used to assess PMC and AMC, respectively. Mann-Whiney U was used to test the differences between sexes and age groups. The association between TGMD2 and PMSC scores was analyzed through Spearman correlation. Boys and girls of all ages showed to have high PMC. Independent of sex, mean values for each TGMD2 subtest increased throughout the age groups with older children having significantly higher mean scores than younger ones. In general, boys and girls showed similar PMC and AMC, independent of age. Weak to moderate and some negative correlations (0.24 < r < −0.40) were found between PMC and AMC scores for all age and sex groups. In conclusion, there appears to be little relationship between actual and perceived motor competence in Portuguese young children.

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Fabiana Rodrigues Osti, Caroline Ribeiro de Souza and Luis Augusto Teixeira

In the present investigation we evaluated the effect of stand-up paddle practice on upright postural control in older individuals. Participants were assigned to a group practicing stand-up paddle on seawater or to a walking control group. Balance stability was evaluated in the tandem Romberg and tiptoes postures, comparing the conditions of eyes open versus closed. Results showed that stand-up paddle practice led to reduced anteroposterior and mediolateral amplitudes of body sway in both visual conditions, while walking led to no effect on balance. These results suggest that the challenge of keeping body balance on an unstable board during on-water stand-up paddle practice is transferred to postural tasks performed on a stable support surface, with generalization to sensory and biomechanical conditions different from those experienced during the training. Our results suggest that on-water balance training could be considered as a potential procedure to improve balance control in older adults.

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Sandra Mahecha Matsudo, Victor Rodrigues Matsudo, Douglas Roque Andrade, Timóteo Leandro Araújo, Erinaldo Andrade, Luis de Oliveira and Glaucia Braggion

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Aristides M. Machado-Rodrigues, Neiva Leite, Manuel J. Coelho e Silva, João Valente-dos-Santos, Raul A. Martins, Luis PG Mascarenhas, Margaret CS Boguszewski, Cristina Padez and Robert M. Malina


Associations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with lifestyle behaviors in youth is potentially important for identifying subgroups at risk and encourage interventions. This study evaluates the associations among the clustering of metabolic risk factors and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in youth.


The sample comprised 522 girls and 402 boys (N = 924) aged 11 to 17 years. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressures were measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was assessed using the 20-m shuttle run test. MVPA was estimated with a 3-day diary. Outcome variables were statistically normalized and expressed as z scores. A clustered metabolic risk score was computed as the mean of z scores. Multiple linear regression was used to test associations between metabolic risk and MVPA by sex, adjusted for age, WC, and CRF.


After adjustment for potential confounders, MVPA was inversely associated with the clustering of metabolic risk factors in girls, but not in boys; in addition, after adjusting for WC, the statistical model of that relationship was substantially improved in girls.


MVPA was independently associated with increased risk of MetS in girls. Additional efforts are needed to encourage research with different analytical approach and standardization of criteria for MetS in youth.