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School-Based High-Intensity Interval Training Programs for Promoting Physical Activity and Fitness in Adolescents: A Systematic Review

André Filipe Paulino da Silva Bento, Luis Carrasco Páez, and Armando Manuel de Mendonça Raimundo

Purpose: This review aimed to evaluate the utility of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) programs integrated into physical education classes. Method: Searches of electronic databases from January 2008 to March 2020. Inclusion criteria: Applied to adolescents aged 10–19 years; applied in school settings; reported results on physical fitness, physical activity (PA), and motivation; at least for 4 weeks; and randomized controlled trials. Studies with adolescents with physical or intellectual limitations were excluded, as well as other interventions parallel to HIIT. Results: Fourteen studies were included. All works present significant improvements in physical fitness and PA. Improvements in body composition recorded, at most, a moderate effect size. HIIT is presented as a powerful stimulus on cardiorespiratory fitness. Improvements in PA registered, a least, a moderate effect size. Conclusions: HIIT in the school context has great potential in improving physical fitness and PA in adolescents. HIIT efficiency (about 10 min) reflects the wide applicability that these protocols can have in physical education classes and great adaptation to the facilities.

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Immediate Effect of Kinesio Taping on Muscle Response in Young Elite Soccer Players

Moisés de Hoyo, Alejandro Álvarez-Mesa, Borja Sañudo, Luis Carrasco, and Sergio Domínguez

Context:

Kinesio taping (KT) is a new taping technique increasingly used in sports medicine to improve muscle performance; however, its real effect is not entirely known.

Objective:

To assess the immediate effects of KT on muscle performance in young healthy elite soccer players.

Design:

Crossover study.

Setting:

University laboratory.

Participants:

Eighteen young elite soccer players voluntarily participated in the study (mean ± SEM: age 18.20 ± 2.45 y, height 1.76 ± 3.56 m, body mass 65.25 ± 3.76 kg, body-mass index 20.12 ± 1.25 kg/m2).

Interventions:

Each subject completed 2 different protocols, with and without KT. Interventions were performed in a random order, with a washout period between conditions of 1 wk.

Main Outcome Measures:

Outcome measures included tensiomyographic response in the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis, power output with 30 and 50 kg, countermovement jump, and 10-m sprint.

Results:

Data showed no significant differences for any of the outcomes analyzed between interventions.

Conclusions:

KT does not produce a short-term improvement in muscle performance in young elite soccer players.

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Effects of Circuit Resistance Training on Body Composition, Strength, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle-Aged and Older Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo, Luis Andreu-Caravaca, María Carrasco-Poyatos, Pedro J. Benito, and Jacobo Ángel Rubio-Arias

A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effects of circuit resistance training (CRT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and body composition in middle-aged and older women. Sixteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. The CRT interventions led to a significant decrease in weight, body mass index, and fat mass along with an increase in muscle mass. Significant differences were found in the fat mass and a trend to develop muscle mass when compared with the control group. CRT led to a significant increase in VO2max, walking endurance, and time to exhaustion; likewise, significant differences were observed when compared with the control group. CRT had a moderate and large favorable effect on arm, trunk, and lower limb strength. Furthermore, the increases in strength observed in the CRT were significantly greater than the changes observed in the control group. In middle-aged and older women, CRT improved cardiorespiratory fitness and strength and optimized body composition.

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Effects of a 10-Week In-Season Eccentric-Overload Training Program on Muscle-Injury Prevention and Performance in Junior Elite Soccer Players

Moisés de Hoyo, Marco Pozzo, Borja Sañudo, Luis Carrasco, Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Sergio Domínguez-Cobo, and Eduardo Morán-Camacho

Purpose:

To analyze the effect of an eccentric-overload training program (ie, half-squat and leg-curl exercises using flywheel ergometers) with individualized load on muscle-injury incidence and severity and performance in junior elite soccer players.

Methods:

Thirty-six young players (U-17 to U-19) were recruited and assigned to an experimental (EXP) or control group (CON). The training program consisted of 1 or 2 sessions/wk (3–6 sets with 6 repetitions) during 10 wk. The outcome measured included muscle injury (incidence per 1000 h of exposure and injury severity) and performance tests (countermovement jump [CMJ], 10-m and 20-m sprint test).

Results:

Between-groups results showed a likely (ES: 0.94) lower number of days of absence per injury and a possible decrement of incidence per 1000 h of match play in EXP than in CON. Regarding muscle performance, a substantial better improvement (likely to very likely) was found in 20-m sprint time (ES: 0.37), 10-m flying-sprint time (ES: 0.77), and CMJ (ES: 0.79) for EXP than for CON. Within-group analysis showed an unclear effect in each variable in CON. Conversely, substantial improvements were obtained in CMJ (ES: 0.58), 20-m sprint time (ES: 0.32), 10-m flying-sprint time (ES: 0.95), and injury severity (ES: 0.59) in EXP. Furthermore, a possible decrement in total injury incidence was also reported in EXP.

Conclusions:

The eccentric-based program led to a reduction in muscle-injury incidence and severity and showed improvements in common soccer tasks such as jumping ability and linear-sprinting speed.