Background: Physical activity promotion within primary health care is in the spotlight. However, few studies have evaluated the long-term effectiveness of possible interventions. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of 3 primary health care interventions in increasing leisure-time physical activity among older Brazilians. Methods: Experimental study with 142 older residents of an ongoing urban cohort in São Paulo (Brazil). Participants were randomized into 3 groups: minimal intervention group, physician-based counseling group, and individual counseling and referral for physical activity programs group (CRG). We used the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess leisure-time physical activity at baseline, 4 years after baseline without any intervention, 3 months after intervention, and 6 months after intervention. Statistical analysis included repeated analysis of variance. Results: At baseline, 31% of the individuals were active, and this figure remained stable for a period of 4 years. Three months after the interventions, there was a significant increase in leisure-time physical activity for CRG compared with the minimal intervention (P < .001) and physician-based counseling (P < .02) groups, and these differences persisted after 6 months (P < .001 and P < .05, respectively). Conclusion: Results indicate that interventions with CRG are effective in producing sustained changes in physical activity among older Brazilians.
Francini Vilela Novais, Eduardo J. Simoes, Chester Schmaltz and Luiz R. Ramos
Pedro C. Hallal, Eduardo Simoes, Felipe F. Reichert, Mario R. Azevedo, Luiz R. Ramos, Michael Pratt and Ross C. Brownson
To evaluate the validity and reliability of the telephone-administered long IPAQ version.
The questionnaire was administered by telephone to adults on days 1 and 6. On day 1, the same questionnaire was administered by face-to-face interview, and accelerometers were delivered to subjects. Reliability was measured by comparing data collected using the telephone questionnaire on days 1 and 6. Validity was measured by comparing the telephone questionnaire data with (a) face-to-face questionnaire and (b) accelerometry.
Data from all instruments were available for 156 individuals. The Spearman correlation coefficient for telephone interview reliability was 0.92 for the leisure-time section of IPAQ, and 0.87 for the transport-related section of IPAQ. The telephone interview reliability kappa was 0.78. The Spearman correlation between the telephone-administered and the face-to-face questionnaire was 0.94 for the leisure-time and 0.82 for the transport-related section. The kappa was 0.69. There was a positive association between quartiles of accelerometer data and total telephone-administered IPAQ score (P < .001). The Spearman correlation was 0.22.
The telephone-administered IPAQ presented almost perfect reliability and very high agreement with the face-to-face version. The agreement with accelerometer data were fair for the continuous score, but moderate for the categorical physical activity variables.
Isabela C. Ribeiro, Andrea Torres, Diana C. Parra, Rodrigo Reis, Christine Hoehner, Thomas L. Schmid, Michael Pratt, Luiz R. Ramos, Eduardo J. Simões and Ross C. Brownson
The Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Brazil and Latin America (GUIA), a systematic review of community-based physical activity (PA) interventions in Latin American literature, selected the CuritibAtiva program for a comprehensive evaluation. We describe the process of developing logic models (LM) of PA community interventions from Curitiba, Brazil, and discuss influential factors.
The year-long process included engaging stakeholders involved in the promotion of PA in Curitiba, working with stakeholders to describe the programs and their goals, and developing LMs for the 2 main secretaries promoting PA in the city.
Results & Conclusions:
As a result of stakeholder interviews and discussion and the development of the LMs, local officials are coordinating programming efforts and considering ways the programs can be more complementary. The process has prompted program managers to identify overlapping programs, refine program goals, and identify gaps in programming. It also helped to frame evaluation questions, identify data sources, describe realistic outcomes, and reinforce the importance of intersectoral alliances for public health impact. Developing LMs proved to be feasible in the Latin American context, therefore adaptable and useful for other PA promotion programs in the region.