Subjects (N = 29) classified as high or low visual imagers (highs and lows, respectively) viewed and reproduced six filmed examples of motoric stimuli constructed by combining a variety of leg, trunk, arm, and head movements. The motor stimuli represented three levels of complexity (4, 7, and 10 components) and two levels of orientation (model facing subject or facing away). Highs and lows were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: (a) one viewing of the stimuli, or (b) two viewings of the stimuli. The experimental design was a 2×2×2× 3 (imagery ability x viewings X orientation x complexity) factorial with repeated measures on the third and fourth factors. Analysis of the data revealed significant main effects for imagery ability, F(l,25) = 6.41, p < .018, where highs reproduced the stimuli with less error than lows, and viewings, F(l,25) = 25.58, p < .001, where two viewings resulted in less recall error than one viewing. Also, the orientation by complexity interaction was found to be significant, F(2,50) = 25.51, p < .001, and indicated that recall accuracy was best when the model was facing away, but only for movement sequences of seven components. The findings suggest that visual imagery may play a role in the recall of modeled motoric stimuli.
Lynn Dale Housner
Lynn Dale Housner
Dennis Floyd Jones, Lynn Dale Housner and Alan Seth Kornspan
This study compared 10 experienced high school and 10 inexperienced junior high and middle school basketball coaches as they executed a 30-minute practice session on the “give and go” play in basketball. The coaches were given 30 minutes to plan a practice session. Following planning, coaches implemented their practice plan. Analysis of coaches’ behavior and interactive decision making indicated that experienced coaches exhibited significantly more technical instruction, whereas inexperienced coaches exhibited significantly higher frequencies of silent observation. With regard to interactive decision making, results indicated that both experienced and inexperienced coaches implemented practice in ways consistent with their plans. Experienced coaches, however, were significantly more reluctant to change their plans when problems were perceived. Despite these differences, experienced and inexperienced coaches exhibited greater similarities than differences. Limitations of research based on the behavioral analyses of the frequencies of thoughts and behaviors are discussed and directions for future research are presented.