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Lynne Halley Johnston and Douglas Carroll

This study used grounded theory to describe the emotional responses of athletes following injury and their situational and temporal contexts. Sixteen seriously injured athletes were interviewed. The NUD*IST (Nonnumerical Unstructured Data Indexing Searching and Theorizing) computer program was used to search, store, explore, and organize the qualitative material. The main emotional responses, appraisals, events, and behaviors that emerged from the analysis were represented diagrammatically. Frustration and depression were the prevalent emotional responses throughout rehabilitation, although the situational corollaries differed as recovery progressed. In the early phase of rehabilitation, frustration and depression resulted from disruption to normal function, in the middle phase they were provoked by a negative appraisal of rehabilitation progress, and. at the end of rehabilitation the main instigator was impatience to return to sport. Whether to risk returning prematurely to sport emerged as a key theme, as did the confounding effects of exercise withdrawal. symptoms in extremely committed athletes. The results were considered in terms of both cognitive appraisal and risk models.

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Lynne Halley Johnston and Douglas Carroll

Twelve seriously injured athletes were asked to describe the provision of eight functional types of support during their rehabilitation. NUD*IST (Nonnumerical Unstructured Data Indexing Searching and Theorizing) was used to organize the data. Overall, the provision of social support largely matched demand. Emotional and practical forms of support decreased with time, while varieties of informational support were increasingly received and preferred over time. The provision of informational and emotional support appeared to be dictated by four temporally sequential appraisals: injury severity, rehabilitation progress, recovery/readiness to return, and sports performance. Practical support in the form of personal assistance greatly depended upon the visibility of the injury and the mobility of the injured athlete. Physiotherapists, doctors, and other currently or previously injured athletes were most likely to provide informational support requiring expert medical knowledge, whereas coaches provided informational support requiring sport-specific expertise. Friends and family were the main source of emotional and practical support. The situational and temporal context of the provision of support is represented diagrammatically.

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Jeff David Breckon, Lynne Halley Johnston, and Andrew Hutchison

Background:

Physical activity (PA) counseling is becoming commonplace in primary care settings, although there is a high degree of variation in the quality and quantity of this intervention. The purpose of this review was to examine the theory on which the intervention is based and the level of treatment fidelity applied at all stages of the intervention.

Methods:

A systematic review was carried out for interventions that reported an element of PA counseling. Results were mapped according to a treatment fidelity framework of intervention design, training, delivery, receipt, and enactment.

Results:

Most studies were underpinned by the transtheoretical model. Few studies described the frequency or duration of PA counseling training or competence level of the interventionist. The most common outcome measures were behavioral and physiological, with few studies including a cognitive outcome measure.

Conclusions:

Most research focuses on outcome and significance rather than intervention processes, with limited consideration of treatment fidelity. The design, training, delivery, and receipt of PA counseling should be reported more thoroughly.