The authors investigated the effects of postexercise carbohydrate-protein-anti-oxidant (CHO+P+A) ingestion on plasma creatine kinase (CK), muscle soreness, and subsequent cross-country race performance. Twenty-three runners consumed 10 mL/kg body weight of CHO or CHO+P+A beverage immediately after each training session for 6 d before a cross-country race. After a 21-d washout period, subjects repeated the protocol with the alternate beverage. Post intervention CK (223.21 ± 160.71 U/L; 307.3 ± 312.9 U/L) and soreness (medians = 1.0, 2.0) were significantly lower after CHO+P+A intervention than after CHO, despite no differences in baseline measures. There were no overall differences in running performance after CHO and CHO+P+A interventions. There were, however, significant correlations between treatment differences and running mileage, with higher mileage runners having trends toward improved attenuations in CK and race performance after CHO+P+A intervention than lower mileage runners. We conclude that muscle damage incurred during training was attenuated with postexercise CHO+P+A ingestion, which could lead to performance improvements in high-mileage runners.
Nicholas D. Luden, Michael J. Saunders and M. Kent Todd
Rudy J. Valentine, Michael J. Saunders, M. Kent Todd and Thomas G. St. Laurent
Carbohydrate–protein (CHO+Pro) beverages reportedly improve endurance and indices of muscle disruption, but it is unclear whether these effects are related to total energy intake or specific effects of protein.
The authors examined effects of CHO+Pro on time to exhaustion and markers of muscle disruption compared with placebo (PLA) and carbohydrate beverages matched for carbohydrate (CHO) and total calories (CHO+CHO).
Eleven male cyclists completed 4 rides to exhaustion at 75% VO2peak. Participants consumed 250 ml of PLA, CHO (7.75%), CHO+CHO (9.69%), or CHO+Pro (7.75%/1.94%) every 15 min until fatigue, in a double-blind design.
Time to exhaustion was significantly longer (p < .05) in CHO+Pro (126.2 ± 25.4 min) and CHO+CHO (121.3 ± 36.8) than PLA (107.1 ± 30.3). CHO (117.5 ± 24.2) and PLA were not significantly different. Similarly, CHO+Pro was not significantly different from CHO and CHO+CHO. Postexercise plasma creatine kinase was lower after CHO+Pro (197.2 ± 149.2 IU/L) than PLA (407.4 ± 391.3), CHO (373.2 ± 416.6), and CHO+CHO (412.3 ± 410.2). Postexercise serum myoglobin was lower in CHO+Pro (47.0 ± 27.4 ng/mL) than all other treatments (168.8 ± 217.3, 82.6 ± 71.3, and 72.0 ± 75.8). Postexercise leg extensions at 70% 1RM were significantly greater 24 hr after CHO+Pro (11.3 ± 4.1) than PLA (8.8 ± 3.7), CHO (9.7 ± 4.3), and CHO+CHO (9.5 ± 3.6).
These findings suggest that at least some of the reported improvements in endurance with CHO+Pro beverages might be related to caloric differences between treatments. Postexercise improvements in markers of muscle disruption with CHO+Pro ingestion appear to be independent of carbohydrate and caloric content and were elicited with beverages consumed only during exercise.
Allan H. Goldfarb, Changmo Cho, Hojune Cho, Brett Romano-Ely and M. Kent Todd
The purpose of this study was to determine whether an isocaloric beverage with added protein and vitamins (CHOPA) would influence oxidative stress and inflammation after cycling to exhaustion as indicated by plasma protein carbonyls (PC), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Twelve trained men (18–33 yr) volunteered and performed this randomized crossover study. Participants cycled at 70% VO2peak until fatigue and at 80% VO2peak 22–24 hr later to fatigue with either carbohydrate or CHOPA. Blood collected before the cycling at rest and 24, 48, and 72 hr after the exercise was analyzed for PC and LOOH spectrophotometrically and for IL-6 via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The data were analyzed with SPSS using repeated-measures ANOVA. PC demonstrated significant treatment (p = .037) and time (p = .004) effects with no Treatment × Time interaction. PC was higher in the CHOPA treatment than with CHO independent of time and increased at 24 (48%), 48 (59%), and 72 (67%) hr after exercise compared with preexercise values. Resting LOOH and IL-6 did not have any significant changes with time or treatment. These data indicate that an isocaloric CHOPA drink after 2 cycling bouts to exhaustion will exacerbate the resting PC level compared with an isocaloric drink, with no influence on plasma LOOH or IL-6. In addition, a modest significant increase in PC over time independent of treatment occurred, which suggests a mild oxidative stress in the days after exhaustive exercise.