Exercise is consistently related to physical and psychological health benefits in older adults. Bandura’s social-cognitive theory (SCT) is one theoretical perspective on understanding and predicting exercise behavior. Thus, the authors examined whether three SCT variables—self-efficacy, self-regulation, and outcome-expectancy value—predicted older adults’ (N = 98) exercise behavior. Bivariate analyses revealed that regular exercise was associated with being male, White, and married; having higher income, education, and self-efficacy; using self-regulation skills; and having favorable outcome-expectancy values (p < .05). In a simultaneous multivariate model, however, self-regulation (p = .0097) was the only variable independently associated with regular exercise. Thus, exercise interventions targeting older adults should include components aimed at increasing the use of self-regulation strategies.
M. Renée Umstattd and Jeffrey Hallam
Megan S. Patterson, M. Renée Umstattd Meyer and Jill M. Beville
Due to numerous health benefits, national recommendations call Americans to participate in muscle-strengthening activities at least 2 days/week. However, college-aged women tend to fall short of recommendations. This study sought to examine correlates of college women meeting strength training recommendations using the Integrated Behavioral Model (IBM).
Undergraduate women (n = 421) completed surveys measuring strength training, demographics, and IBM constructs. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted using SPSS 19.
Respondents were on average 20.1 years old, 79.3% were white, and 66.3% did not meet strength training recommendations. Bivariate correlations revealed significant relationships (P ≤ .01) between strength training and attitude, descriptive norms, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, intention, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. A logistic regression model revealed self-efficacy, intention, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were predictive of college women meeting U.S. strength training recommendations.
This study supports using the IBM to understand strength training behavior among college women. Further research is needed to better understand mediating effects among IBM constructs.
M. Renée Umstattd Meyer, Stephanie L. Baller, Shawn M. Mitchell and Stewart G. Trost
Accelerometers have become one of the most common methods of measuring physical activity (PA). Thus, validity of accelerometer data reduction approaches remains an important research area. Yet, few studies directly compare data reduction approaches and other PA measures in free-living samples.
To compare PA estimates provided by 3 accelerometer data reduction approaches, steps, and 2 self-reported estimates: Crouter’s 2-regression model, Crouter’s refined 2-regression model, the weighted cut-point method adopted in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 cycles), steps, IPAQ, and 7-day PA recall.
A worksite sample (N = 87) completed online-surveys and wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers and pedometers (SW-200) during waking hours for 7 consecutive days. Daily time spent in sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity activity and percentage of participants meeting PA recommendations were calculated and compared.
Crouter’s 2-regression (161.8 ± 52.3 minutes/day) and refined 2-regression (137.6 ± 40.3 minutes/day) models provided significantly higher estimates of moderate and vigorous PA and proportions of those meeting PA recommendations (91% and 92%, respectively) as compared with the NHANES weighted cut-point method (39.5 ± 20.2 minutes/day, 18%). Differences between other measures were also significant.
When comparing 3 accelerometer cut-point methods, steps, and self-report measures, estimates of PA participation vary substantially.
M. Renée Umstattd, Stephanie L. Baller, Gina H. Blunt and Michelle L. Darst
The objective of this pilot study was to examine demographic, health, behavioral, and social cognitive correlates of perceived worksite environmental support for physical activity (PA) in middle-age adults.
A convenience sample (N = 173) of University employees in the Southeastern U.S. (mean age = 45) was surveyed using an internet-based questionnaire. Measures included perceived worksite environmental support for PA, self-reported minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA, self-regulation, self-efficacy for walking transportation, PA social support, health status, and sociodemographic items. Bivariate and hierarchical regression analyses were computed to examine correlates of perceived worksite environmental support for PA.
Bivariate analyses revealed male gender, self-reported moderate-to-vigorous PA, self-regulation use, self-efficacy for walking transportation, and PA social support from friends and family as independent, positive correlates of perceived worksite environmental support for PA (P ≤ .05). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed self-regulation use and PA social support from friends as independent, positive correlates of perceived worksite environmental support for PA (final model R 2 = 20.30%, P ≤ .0001).
Although causality cannot be determined, these pilot findings support a social cognitive approach. Further exploration of these relationships is warranted and health educators should consider perceptions of physical and social environments in planning future worksite PA promotion programs.
M. Renée Umstattd, Stephanie L. Baller, Erin Hennessy, David Hartley, Christina D. Economos, Raymond R. Hyatt, Anush Yousefian and Jeffrey S. Hallam
Evidence supports the role of physical and social environments in active living, including perception of environment. However, measurement of perceived environments in rural settings is lacking. This study describes the development of the Rural Active Living Perceived Environmental Support Scale (RALPESS).
Premised on social ecological and cognitive perspectives, 85 initial items were generated through a literature review and a mixed-methods investigation of “activity-friendly” environments. Items were organized by resource areas—town center, indoor and outdoor physical activity areas, schools, churches, and areas around the home/neighborhood—and submitted for expert panel review. In 2009, a revised questionnaire was disseminated to adolescents, parents, public school staff, and older adults in 2 rural southeastern United States counties. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was used to explore factor structure (n = 542).
The final analysis yielded 33 items with 7 factors: 1) church facilities, 2) town center connectivity, 3) indoor areas, 4) around the home/neighborhood, 5) town center physical activity resources, 6) school grounds, and 7) outdoor areas.
The RALPESS is a valid, internally consistent, and practically useful instrument to measure perceptions of rural environments in the context of physical activity across the lifespan. Confirmatory factor analysis is recommended to validate factor structure.
Nisha Botchwey, Myron F. Floyd, Keshia Pollack Porter, Carmen L. Cutter, Chad Spoon, Tom L. Schmid, Terry L. Conway, J. Aaron Hipp, Anna J. Kim, M. Renee Umstattd Meyer, Amanda L. Walker, Tina J. Kauh and Jim F. Sallis
Background: The Physical Activity Research Center developed a research agenda that addresses youth physical activity (PA) and healthy weight, and aligns with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Culture of Health. This paper summarizes prioritized research studies with a focus on youth at higher risk for inactive lifestyles and childhood obesity in urban and rural communities. Methods: Systematic literature reviews, a survey, and discussions with practitioners and researchers provided guidance on research questions to build evidence and inform effective strategies to promote healthy weight and PA in youth across race, cultural, and economic groups. Results: The research team developed a matrix of potential research questions, identified priority questions, and designed targeted studies to address some of the priority questions and inform advocacy efforts. The studies selected examine strategies advocating for activity-friendly communities, Play Streets, park use, and PA of youth in the summer. A broader set of research priorities for youth PA is proposed. Conclusion: Establishing the Physical Activity Research Center research agenda identified important initial and future research studies to promote and ensure healthy weight and healthy levels of PA for at-risk youth. Results will be disseminated with the goal of promoting equitable access to PA for youth.