Between 2000 and 2018, the number of fights in professional hockey decreased by more than half, reflecting rule changes intended to preserve player health. A 2019 playoff fight ignited debate on social media over the place of fighting in hockey. This research involved a content analysis of an incendiary tweet and the 920 replies it solicited. Content analysis confirmed that cultural backlash exists in sport and provided insight into manifestations of backlash. Comments exhibiting backlash varied by subject (i.e., what or who is being discussed in the tweet) and attitude (i.e., positive approval for fighting and negative attitude toward change), with many defending hockey masculinity. Connections are drawn to manifestations of backlash in the political realm, the extant hockey masculinity literature, and implications for sociological theory and the sport of hockey are discussed.
Daniel Sailofsky and Madeleine Orr
Madeleine Orr and Walker J. Ross
Given the impacts of climate change, sport event organizations need to adapt to changes in their environment to remain feasible, safe, competitive, and profitable. Mega-events such as the Olympic Games and Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cups take years to plan and, ideally, produce long-lasting legacy benefits for their host communities. In awarding these events to host cities and countries, the rightsholders must carefully consider the local climate to ensure that playing conditions will be safe and competitive. This case study examines the prospective 2027 FIFA Women’s World Cup bid in Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands and invites students to put themselves in the position of a joint bid committee, which must assess the suitability of three cities (Brussels, Berlin, and Amsterdam) for hosting based on their climate. Furthermore, students will be asked to identify climate adaptation strategies that might be adopted by the prospective host committees to accommodate any potential climate challenges. Through this case study, students will learn to investigate the potential effects of climate, climate change, and weather issues on a mega-event; explore the relationship between sport and the natural environment; and learn to source climate data for their own communities and organizations.
Brian P. McCullough, Madeleine Orr, and Timothy Kellison
The relationship between sport and the natural environment is bidirectional and critical to the production of sport products, events, and experiences. Researchers have studied sport and the natural environment within the various subdisciplines of sport management. However, given the changing climate and mounting public concern for the environment, there is pressure to reconsider the relevance and significance of the natural environment, which is taken for granted in managerial contexts. Reflecting the importance of the natural environment, the robustness of the current literature, and the potential for the future, we propose a new subdiscipline of sport management called sport ecology. Thus, we proposed, in this paper, a definition for sport ecology, (re)introduced key concepts related to this subdiscipline (e.g., sustainability, green), and highlighted the leading research that serves as the foundation for sport ecology. We concluded with a discussion on the ways sport ecology can inform—and be informed by—other subdisciplines of sport management.
Brian P. McCullough, Madeleine Orr, and Nicholas M. Watanabe
A paradox exists between the ways sport organizations evaluate their economic impact, compared with their environmental impact. Although the initial sustainability and corporate social responsibility efforts of sport organizations should be celebrated, it is appropriate to call for the next advancement concerning the assessment and measurement of environmental sustainability efforts in sport organizations. Specifically, there is a need for improved and increased monitoring and measurement of sustainable practices that include negative environmental externalities. To usher this advancement, the authors first reviewed the extant research and current industry practice involving environmental impact reporting in sport. Second, the authors proposed a conceptual framework that expands the scope of environmental assessment to be more comprehensive. As such, this expanded, yet more accurate, assessment of environmental impact can identify specific aspects of the event and the inputs and outputs of the before and after event phases that can be curtailed or modified to reduce environmental impacts of sport events.