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One Step Forward, Two Tweets Back: Exploring Cultural Backlash and Hockey Masculinity on Twitter

Daniel Sailofsky and Madeleine Orr

Between 2000 and 2018, the number of fights in professional hockey decreased by more than half, reflecting rule changes intended to preserve player health. A 2019 playoff fight ignited debate on social media over the place of fighting in hockey. This research involved a content analysis of an incendiary tweet and the 920 replies it solicited. Content analysis confirmed that cultural backlash exists in sport and provided insight into manifestations of backlash. Comments exhibiting backlash varied by subject (i.e., what or who is being discussed in the tweet) and attitude (i.e., positive approval for fighting and negative attitude toward change), with many defending hockey masculinity. Connections are drawn to manifestations of backlash in the political realm, the extant hockey masculinity literature, and implications for sociological theory and the sport of hockey are discussed.

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Gender Differences in Careers and Publications Within the Sport Management Academy

Daniel Sailofsky, Madeleine Orr, and Lindsey Darvin

Sport management programs are essential pathways by which aspiring professionals in the sport industry achieve their university education. Although a substantial segment of sport management scholarship has focused on driving for higher rates of diversity, equity, and inclusion in the sport industry, less attention has been paid to the sport management academy. In this study, we examine the gender representation of full-time faculty positions, publications, and research methodologies in sport management. Our results show that men are employed in higher numbers overall. In the 329 sport management programs studied, the percentages of women employed at each level are assistant professor 46.8%, associate professor 39.5%, and full professor 37%, suggesting a drop-off aligned with the concept of career derailment or a time lag in reaching equity in the discipline. Women are also less published in top sport management journals (Journal of Sport Management, European Sport Management Quarterly, and Sport Management Review). Implications of these findings are discussed, as well as future research directions.

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Assessing Climate Suitability of Three Cities for the 2027 Women’s World Cup

Madeleine Orr and Walker J. Ross

Given the impacts of climate change, sport event organizations need to adapt to changes in their environment to remain feasible, safe, competitive, and profitable. Mega-events such as the Olympic Games and Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cups take years to plan and, ideally, produce long-lasting legacy benefits for their host communities. In awarding these events to host cities and countries, the rightsholders must carefully consider the local climate to ensure that playing conditions will be safe and competitive. This case study examines the prospective 2027 FIFA Women’s World Cup bid in Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands and invites students to put themselves in the position of a joint bid committee, which must assess the suitability of three cities (Brussels, Berlin, and Amsterdam) for hosting based on their climate. Furthermore, students will be asked to identify climate adaptation strategies that might be adopted by the prospective host committees to accommodate any potential climate challenges. Through this case study, students will learn to investigate the potential effects of climate, climate change, and weather issues on a mega-event; explore the relationship between sport and the natural environment; and learn to source climate data for their own communities and organizations.

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Sport Ecology: Conceptualizing an Emerging Subdiscipline Within Sport Management

Brian P. McCullough, Madeleine Orr, and Timothy Kellison

The relationship between sport and the natural environment is bidirectional and critical to the production of sport products, events, and experiences. Researchers have studied sport and the natural environment within the various subdisciplines of sport management. However, given the changing climate and mounting public concern for the environment, there is pressure to reconsider the relevance and significance of the natural environment, which is taken for granted in managerial contexts. Reflecting the importance of the natural environment, the robustness of the current literature, and the potential for the future, we propose a new subdiscipline of sport management called sport ecology. Thus, we proposed, in this paper, a definition for sport ecology, (re)introduced key concepts related to this subdiscipline (e.g., sustainability, green), and highlighted the leading research that serves as the foundation for sport ecology. We concluded with a discussion on the ways sport ecology can inform—and be informed by—other subdisciplines of sport management.

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Measuring Externalities: The Imperative Next Step to Sustainability Assessment in Sport

Brian P. McCullough, Madeleine Orr, and Nicholas M. Watanabe

A paradox exists between the ways sport organizations evaluate their economic impact, compared with their environmental impact. Although the initial sustainability and corporate social responsibility efforts of sport organizations should be celebrated, it is appropriate to call for the next advancement concerning the assessment and measurement of environmental sustainability efforts in sport organizations. Specifically, there is a need for improved and increased monitoring and measurement of sustainable practices that include negative environmental externalities. To usher this advancement, the authors first reviewed the extant research and current industry practice involving environmental impact reporting in sport. Second, the authors proposed a conceptual framework that expands the scope of environmental assessment to be more comprehensive. As such, this expanded, yet more accurate, assessment of environmental impact can identify specific aspects of the event and the inputs and outputs of the before and after event phases that can be curtailed or modified to reduce environmental impacts of sport events.