Mobility restriction as a consequence of a fall is a major issue in assisted-living facilities. Although many factors are related to falling, little is known about the relationship between falls, social support, falls efficacy, and physical activity. The authors examined the relationship between falls and the Social Support Questionnaire, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale, and physical activity simultaneously in 81 older adults (66–94 years) using structural equation modeling. The structural equation model revealed that being older was associated with lower falls efficacy and a higher number of falls, and higher falls efficacy was associated with a higher number of steps per day. The development of a structural equation model illustrating the mediating effects of social support and falls efficacy on the relationship between falls and physical activity can help health care professionals in predicting risk factors of falls that may be compromised by residing in an assisted-living facility.
Dennis Dreiskaemper, Till Utesch and Maike Tietjens
The perception of one’s own motor skills can be an important mediator between motor skills and physical activity in childhood. For early childhood, questionnaires are available to measure the self-perception of motor skills (locomotion and object-control) via pictorial scales with one item representing each skill. During childhood, self-perception develops and becomes more complex and differentiated (the physical self-concept). Therefore, the aim of this study was to create a questionnaire in order to adequately assess children’s self-perceptions of fundamental movement skills. A 40-item questionnaire was tested in a pilot study (N = 94) for primary school grades 2–4. Based on the psychometric results, a reduced 24-item questionnaire, Perceived Motor Competence in Childhood (PMC-C), was completed by 197 children between 7 and 13 years of age. The results indicate construct validity (χ2/df = 1.76, N = 197, p < .001, Tucker-Lewis Index = .91, Comparative Fit Index = .90, RMSEA = .06) and internal consistency (object-control .79–.91; locomotion .79–.89) for the 24-item questionnaire. The PMC-C contributes as an extension of the available pictorial scales to assess the skill-oriented physical self-concept in middle and later childhood by covering the perception of multiple aspects of eight different motor skills.
Maike Tietjens, Dennis Dreiskaemper, Till Utesch, Nadja Schott, Lisa M. Barnett and Trina Hinkley
Children’s self-perception of motor skills and physical fitness is said to be an important mediator between skills and physical fitness on the one hand and physical activity on the other hand. An age-appropriate self-perception scale is needed to understand the development and the differentiation of the physical self-concept of children and its components. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) to develop a pictorial scale of physical fitness for pre-school children (3–6 years old), and (2) to describe the face validity and feasibility of the scale. The study sample included 27 kindergarten children. In order to determine the psychometric properties, validity was assessed by administrating the Pictorial Scale for Physical Self-Concept in Kindergarten Children (P-PSC-C) compared with children’s fundamental movement skill competency (Test of Gross Motor Development [TGMD]-3; six locomotor and seven object-control skills), height, weight, and demographics. The face validity was favorable. Expectable negatively skewed response distributions were found in all items. Medium correlations with related constructs and with sport enjoyment were found. The results indicate that the new scale is usable for kindergarten children. Future validation studies are needed so that the new scale can contribute to the research about physical self-concept development in kindergarten children.