The purpose of this meta-analysis of randomized trials was to determine the effectiveness of aerobic plus resistance exercise interventions on body composition related to variables in overweight and obese youth. A computerized search was made of 7 databases. The analysis was restricted to randomized controlled trials that examined the effect of aerobic and resistance exercise on body composition (body weight, body mass index, fat mass, fat-free mass, and waist circumference) in obese youth. Two independent reviewers screened studies and extracted data. Weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Nine studies were selected for meta-analysis as they fulfilled the inclusion criteria (n = 365). Aerobic plus resistance exercise interventions (8–24 weeks duration) produced a decrease in body weight (WMD=-3.31 kg), body mass index (WMD=-1.05 kg/m2), and fat mass (WMD=-1.93% and 5.05 kg), but changes in fatfree mass and waist circumference were not observed. These changes were accentuated through programs of at least 60 min of exercise per session, generating greater reductions in body weight (WMD=-4.11 kg), fat mass (WMD=-4.07%), and increase in fat-free mass (WMD = 2.45 kg). This meta-analysis provides insight into the effectiveness of short-term aerobic plus resistance exercise interventions for decreasing body weight, body mass index, and fat mass in pediatric obesity.
Antonio García-Hermoso, Mairena Sánchez-López, and Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno
Sara López-Martínez, Mairena Sánchez-López, Montserrat Solera-Martinez, Natalia Arias-Palencia, Rosa M. Fuentes-Chacón, and Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno
Our objective was to analyze the association between different intensities of physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and metabolic syndrome (MS) in young adults.
Cross-sectional study including 275 university students, 18–30 years old, from Cuenca, Spain. We evaluated (a) physical activity using accelerometry, (b) aerobic capacity (VO2max), and (c) muscle strength, by a muscle strength index calculated as the sum of the standardized z score of handgrip dynamometry/weight and standing broad jump. An MS index was estimated by summing standardized z scores of waist circumference, ratio of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein, mean arterial blood pressure, and HOMA-IR.
The mean scores of MS index and HOMAIR were significantly higher and the VO2max significantly lower for individuals who did not perform 20 min or more per week of vigorous physical activity. However, those who performed 250 min/week of moderate physical activity showed no significant differences in either VO2max or the MS index when compared with individuals who did not perform this level of activity. The MS index was lower in those with medium-high levels of aerobic capacity. In addition, individuals with medium-high levels of muscular fitness showed lower waist circumference and a lower MS index.
VO2max and muscle strength are negatively associated with metabolic risk. 20-min/week of vigorous physical activity was associated with lower cardiometabolic risk in young adults; moderate physical activity did not show association with lower cardiometabolic risk.
Jorge Cañete García-Prieto, Vicente Martinez-Vizcaino, Antonio García-Hermoso, Mairena Sánchez-López, Natalia Arias-Palencia, Juan Fernando Ortega Fonseca, and Ricardo Mora-Rodriguez
The aim of this study was to examine the energy expenditure (EE) measured using indirect calorimetry (IC) during playground games and to assess the validity of heart rate (HR) and accelerometry counts as indirect indicators of EE in children´s physical activity games. 32 primary school children (9.9 ± 0.6 years old, 19.8 ± 4.9 kg · m-2 BMI and 37.6 ± 7.2 ml · kg-1 · min-1 VO2max). Indirect calorimetry (IC), accelerometry and HR data were simultaneously collected for each child during a 90 min session of 30 playground games. Thirty-eight sessions were recorded in 32 different children. Each game was recorded at least in three occasions in other three children. The intersubject coefficient of variation within a game was 27% for IC, 37% for accelerometry and 13% for HR. The overall mean EE in the games was 4.2 ± 1.4 kcals · min-1 per game, totaling to 375 ± 122 kcals/per 90 min/session. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and accelerometer counts was 0.48 (p = .026) for endurance games and 0.21 (p = .574) for strength games. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and HR was 0.71 (p = .032) for endurance games and 0.48 (p = .026) for strength games. Our data indicate that both accelerometer and HR monitors are useful devices for estimating EE during endurance games, but only HR monitors estimates are accurate for endurance games.
Blanca Roman-Viñas, Jorge Marin, Mairena Sánchez-López, Susana Aznar, Rosaura Leis, Raquel Aparicio-Ugarriza, Helmut Schroder, Rocío Ortiz-Moncada, German Vicente, Marcela González-Gross, and Lluís Serra-Majem
The first Active Healthy Kids Spanish Report Card aims to gather the most robust information about physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior of children and adolescents.
A Research Working Group of experts on PA and sport sciences was convened. A comprehensive data search, based on a review of the literature, dissertations, gray literature, and experts’ nonpublished data, was conducted to identify the best sources to grade each indicator following the procedures and methodology outlined by the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card model.
Overall PA (based on objective and self-reported methods) was graded as D-, Organized Sports Participation as B, Active Play as C+, Active Transportation as C, Sedentary Behavior as D, School as C, and Family and Peers as Incomplete, Community and the Built Environment as Incomplete, and Government as Incomplete.
Spanish children and adolescents showed low levels of adherence to PA and sedentary behavior guidelines, especially females and adolescents. There is a need to achieve consensus and harmonize methods to evaluate PA and sedentary behavior to monitor changes over time and to evaluate the effectiveness of policies to promote PA.