This study investigates, in young nonobese healthy athletes, the consequences of a 3-day fast coupled, or not, to enhanced physical activity. Eight male subjects, aged 21 ± 2 years, fasted for 3 days on two separate occasions, 4 weeks apart. On the first occasion, subjects continued their daily training activities. On the second occasion, a daily physical exercise program was added to these activities. Subjects were evaluated before and after 24 hours and 72 hours of fasting. Evaluation consisted of body composition, basal respiratory exchange ratio, plasma metabolic parameters, perception-reaction time (both simple and discriminant), hand grip strength, and physical work capacity at 170 beats per minute (PWC170). Fasting determined significant reductions in body weight, body fat, and muscle mass. These reductions were not affected by enhanced physical activity. Basal respiratory exchange ratio decreased with fasting but was not influenced by increased training activities. Fasting determined a significant decrease in blood glucose levels, while plasma proteins, urea, uric acid, and free fatty acids increased. Perception-reaction time and hand grip strength were unmodified during fasting. By contrast, PWC170 was significantly and progressively reduced during fasting, and this decrease was not reversed by an increase in training activities.
Ángel Gutiérrez, Marcela González-Gross, Manuel Delgado and Manuel J. Castillo
Blanca Roman-Viñas, Jorge Marin, Mairena Sánchez-López, Susana Aznar, Rosaura Leis, Raquel Aparicio-Ugarriza, Helmut Schroder, Rocío Ortiz-Moncada, German Vicente, Marcela González-Gross and Lluís Serra-Majem
The first Active Healthy Kids Spanish Report Card aims to gather the most robust information about physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior of children and adolescents.
A Research Working Group of experts on PA and sport sciences was convened. A comprehensive data search, based on a review of the literature, dissertations, gray literature, and experts’ nonpublished data, was conducted to identify the best sources to grade each indicator following the procedures and methodology outlined by the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card model.
Overall PA (based on objective and self-reported methods) was graded as D-, Organized Sports Participation as B, Active Play as C+, Active Transportation as C, Sedentary Behavior as D, School as C, and Family and Peers as Incomplete, Community and the Built Environment as Incomplete, and Government as Incomplete.
Spanish children and adolescents showed low levels of adherence to PA and sedentary behavior guidelines, especially females and adolescents. There is a need to achieve consensus and harmonize methods to evaluate PA and sedentary behavior to monitor changes over time and to evaluate the effectiveness of policies to promote PA.
Raquel Aparicio-Ugarriza, Raquel Pedrero-Chamizo, María del Mar Bibiloni, Gonzalo Palacios, Antoni Sureda, Agustín Meléndez-Ortega, Josep Antoni Tur Marí and Marcela González-Gross
As there is no gold-standard methodology to classify older people in relation to physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB), this paper aimed to propose a classification combining PA and SB.
Within a broader study, 433 subjects, aged 55 years and older (57% females) from Madrid and Majorca, were evaluated for PA and SB by means of validated questionnaires. Physical fitness was analyzed objectively using the EXERNET test battery. Cluster analyses were used to establish behavioral patterns, combining PA and SB.
Males spent more time doing regular PA but less time walking and working at home than females (P < .001). Comparing the groups (inactive and high sedentary, inactive and low sedentary, active and high sedentary, and active and low sedentary), the worst aerobic endurance (P < .001) and lower body strength (P < .05) were obtained in males from both inactive groups. Agility was highest in the active and low sedentary group (P < .05). No significant differences were observed in females.
The proposed classification is valid, as it classifies subjects according to their PA and SB, and outcomes are related to objectively measured fitness. It could facilitate the work of public health authorities, researchers, and physicians.
Palma ChiMón, Francisco B. Ortega, Jonatan R. Ruiz, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, David Martínez-Gómez, Germán Vicente-Rodriguez, Kurt Widhalm, Dénes Molnar, Frédéric Gottrand, Marcela González-Gross, Dianne S. Ward, Luis A. Moreno, Manuel J. Castillo and Michael Sjöström
Chillón and Ruiz are with the Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of Granada, Spain. Chillón and Ward are with the Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Ortega, Ruiz and Sjöström are with the Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden. Ortega and Castillo are with the Department of Medical Physiology, University of Granada, Spain. De Bourdeaudhuij is with the Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Belgium. Martínez-Gómez is with the Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Spain. Vicente-Rodríguez and Moreno are with Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development (GENUD) Research Group, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain. Widhalm is with the Department of Paediatrics, Division of Clinical Nutrition, Medical University of Vienna, Austria. Molnar is with the Deprtment of Paediatrics, Clinical Center, University of Pécs, Hungary. Gottrand is with Inserm U995, University Lille2 and CIC-9301-CH&U-Inserm, University Hospital of Lille, France. González-Gross is with the Department of Health and Human Performance, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.