This study examined the effect of a 4-week intensified training (IT) period, followed by a 2-week tapering period (TP), on salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA), salivary cortisol, and the severity of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms in 23 rhythmic gymnasts [12.1 (2.6) y; 143.9 (13.7) cm; 37.2 (9.4) kg]. Saliva sampling was conducted at pre- and post-IT, and post-TP (analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-21) questionnaire was completed daily to analyze the severity of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms. The session rating of the perceived exertion was used to determine the internal training load and the acute:chronic workload ratio. A higher SIgA concentration [SIgAabs (μg/mL); F = 7.6; P = .001] for post-IT [234 (104)] versus pre-IT [173 (91)], and post-TP [182 (70)], and a higher SIgA secretion rate [SIgArate (μg/min); F = 3.4; P = .04] for post-IT [69 (28)] versus pre-IT [55 (27)], and post-TP [58 (22)] were observed. No significant change was observed for cortisol (F = 0.81; P = .45) or for the severity of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms (χ2 = 2.81; P = .24). Internal training load was higher during IT (vs TP; effect size = 2.37). The acute:chronic workload for the IT weeks varied from 1.2 (0.3) to 1.4 (0.3). These results suggest that a 4-week IT may temporarily augment the oral mucosal immunity, and an acute:chronic workload of 1.2–1.4 seems to be a safe approach to periodized training loads in youth rhythmic gymnasts.
Kizzy Antualpa, Marcelo Saldanha Aoki and Alexandre Moreira
Alexandre Moreira, Tom Kempton, Marcelo Saldanha Aoki, Anita C. Sirotic and Aaron J. Coutts
To examine the impact of varying between-matches microcycles on training characteristics (ie, intensity, duration, and load) in professional rugby league players and to report on match load related to these between-matches microcycles.
Training-load data were collected during a 26-wk competition period of an entire season. Training load was measured using the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) method for every training session and match from 44 professional rugby league players from the same National Rugby League team. Using the category-ratio 10 RPE scale, the training intensity was divided into 3 zones (low <4 AU, moderate ≥4-≤7 AU, and high >7 AU). Three different-length between-matches recovery microcycles were used for analysis: 5−6 d, 7−8 d, and 9−10 d.
A total of 3848 individual sessions were recorded. During the shorter-length between-matches microcycles (5−6 d), significantly lower training load was observed. No significant differences for subsequent match load or intensity were identified between the various match recovery periods. Overall, 16% of the training sessions were completed at the low-intensity zone, 61% at the moderate-intensity zone, and 23% at the high-intensity zone.
The findings demonstrate that rugby league players undertake higher training load as the length of between-matches microcycles is increased. The majority of in-season training of professional rugby league players was at moderate intensity, and a polarized approach to training that has been reported in elite endurance athletes does not occur in professional rugby league.
Alexandre Moreira, Johann C. Bilsborough, Courtney J. Sullivan, Michael Cianciosi, Marcelo Saldanha Aoki and Aaron J. Coutts
To examine the training periodization of an elite Australian Football team during different phases of the season.
Training-load data were collected during 22 wk of preseason and 23 wk of in-season training. Training load was measured using the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) for all training sessions and matches from 44 professional Australian Football players from the same team. Training intensity was divided into 3 zones based on session-RPE (low, <4; moderate, >4 AU and <7 AU; and high, >7 AU). Training load and intensity were analyzed according to the type of training session completed.
Higher training load and session duration were undertaken for all types of training sessions during the preseason than in-season (P < .05), with the exception of “other” training (ie, re/prehabilitation training, cross-training, and recovery activities). Training load and intensity were higher during the preseason, with the exception of games, where greater load and intensity were observed during the in-season. The overall distribution of training intensity was similar between phases with the majority of training performed at moderate or high intensity.
The current findings may allow coaches and scientists to better understand the characteristics of Australian Football periodization, which in turn may aid in developing optimal training programs. The results also indicate that a polarized training-intensity distribution that has been reported in elite endurance athletes does not occur in professional Australian Football.