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Marcia Milne, Craig Hall and Lorie Forwell

Objective:

To evaluate the factorial validity of the Athletic Injury Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (AISEQ) and the predictive relationships among self-efficacy, imagery use, and rehabilitation adherence.

Design and Setting:

Survey administered in an outpatient physiotherapy clinic.

Participants:

270 injured athletes.

Main Outcome Measures:

AISEQ, Athletic Injury Imagery Questionnaire, and an adherence measure.

Results:

A confirmatory factor analysis of the AISEQ revealed a 2-factor model. Athletes were higher in task efficacy than coping efficacy and used more cognitive and motivational imagery than healing imagery. In addition, athletes rated their frequency and duration of exercise performance higher than their quality of exercise performance. Cognitive imagery significantly predicted task efficacy, task efficacy predicted quality of exercise, and coping efficacy predicted frequency of exercise. Both task and coping efficacy were predictors of duration of exercise.

Conclusions:

Results support a 2-factor solution of the AISEQ. In addition, task and coping self-efficacy appear to be key aspects in rehabilitation adherence.

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Marcia I. Milne, Wendy M. Rodgers, Craig R. Hall and Philip M. Wilson

Across various social cognitive theories, behavioral intention is broadly argued to be the most proximal and important predictor of behavior (Ajzen, 1991; Gibbons, Gerrard, Blanton, & Russell, 1998; Rogers, 1983). It seems probable that an intention to increase behavior might be differentially determined from an intention to maintain behavior. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine (1) the change in two types of behavioral intention over time and (2) the relationship between intention and the social-cognitive factor mental imagery. Behavioral intention, exercise imagery, and observed exercise behavior was measured in 68 exercise initiates participating in a 12-week exercise program. Results revealed that behavioral intention to increase exercise behavior decreased over the exercise program, whereas intentions to maintain exercise behavior increased. Appearance and technique imagery were found to be significant predictors of intention to increase behavior during the first 6 weeks of the program, and only appearance imagery predicted intention to maintain exercise behavior during the last 6 weeks. These findings suggest that the two types of behavioral intention are distinguishable and may be useful targets for exercise behavior interventions.