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Claudia Ridel Juzwiak, Ciro Winckler, Daniel Paduan Joaquim, Andressa Silva, and Marco Tulio de Mello

To compare basal metabolic rate (BMR) predicted by different equations with measured BMR of the Brazilian paralympic track & field team aiming to verify which of these equations is best suited for use in this group. Method: 19 male and 11 female athletes grouped according to functional classification (vision impairment-VI, limb deficiency-LD, and cerebral palsy-CP) had their BMR measured by indirect calorimetry and compared with values predicted by different equations: Cunningham, Owen, Harris-Benedict, FAO/OMS, Dietary Reference Intakes, and Mifflin. Body composition data were obtained by skinfold measurements. Results were reported as mean and standard deviation and analyzed using the Wilcoxon test and Pearson´s Correlation Coefficient. The Root Mean Squared Prediction Error (RMSPE) was calculated to identify the similarity between the estimated and predicted BMR. Results: Mean measured BMR was 25 ± 4.2, 26 ± 2.4, and 26 ± 2.7 kcal/kg of fat free mass/day for VI, LD, and CP, respectively. Owen´s equation had the best predictive performance in comparison with measured BMR for LD and CP athletes, within 104 and 125 kcal/day, while Mifflin’s equation predicted within 146 kcal/day for VI athletes. Conclusion: for this specific group of athletes the Owen and Mifflin equations provided the best predictions of BMR.

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Aurora de Fátima G.C. Mafra Cabral, Marcelo Medeiros Pinheiro, Charlles H.M. Castro, Marco Túlio De Mello, Sérgio Tufik, and Vera Lúcia Szejnfeld

The objective was to compare the performance of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and Baecke questionnaire to estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in healthy older women. One hundred healthy women aged 60 years and older answered the IPAQ and Baecke questionnaires and underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test. The 6-min walk (6MWT), timed up and go (TUG), and handgrip strength test (HST) were also performed. Mean age and body mass index were 68.5 ± 6.3 years and 27 ± 4.7 kg/m2, respectively. No significant correlation was seen between VO2max, IPAQ and Baecke questionnaires. IPAQ did not correlate with any functional tests while Baecke correlated weakly with the 6MWT and TUG test. VO2max correlated significantly with the 6MWT (r = .38; p = .0001), HST (r = .34; p = .001), and TUG (r = −.41; p = .0001). In a multivariate regression model, TUG was the best estimator for VO2max (R 2 = .217; p = .0001). In conclusion, IPAQ and Baecke questionnaires do not associate significantly with VO2max in older women.

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Lilian França Wallerstein, Valmor Tricoli, Renato Barroso, André L.F. Rodacki, Luciano Russo, André Yui Aihara, Artur da Rocha Correa Fernandes, Marco Tulio de Mello, and Carlos Ugrinowitsch

The purpose of this study was to compare the neuromuscular adaptations produced by strength-training (ST) and power-training (PT) regimens in older individuals. Participants were balanced by quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and leg-press 1-repetition maximum and randomly assigned to an ST group (n = 14; 63.6 ± 4.0 yr, 79.7 ± 17.2 kg, and 163.9 ± 9.8 cm), a PT group (n = 16; 64.9 ± 3.9 yr, 63.9 ± 11.9 kg, and 157.4 ± 7.7 cm), or a control group (n = 13; 63.0 ± 4.0 yr, 67.2 ± 10.8 kg, and 159.8 ± 6.8 cm). ST and PT were equally effective in increasing (a) maximum dynamic and isometric strength (p < .05), (b) increasing quadriceps muscle CSA (p < .05), and (c) decreasing electrical mechanical delay of the vastus lateralis muscle (p < .05). There were no significant changes in neuromuscular activation after training. The novel finding of the current study is that PT seems to be an attractive alternative to regular ST to maintain and improve muscle mass.

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Mário A.M. Simim, Gustavo R. da Mota, Moacir Marocolo, Bruno V.C. da Silva, Marco Túlio de Mello, and Paul S. Bradley

We investigated the match demands (distances covered and acute physiological responses) of amputee soccer and its impact on muscular endurance and power. Measures such as heart rate, blood lactate concentration, subjective rating of perceived exertion, and time-motion characteristics were recorded in 16 Brazilian amputee soccer players during matches. Before and after matches, players completed a battery of tests: push-ups, countermovement vertical jump performance, and medicine ball throwing. Small differences were found between the first and second half for the distance covered in total and across various speed categories. Heart rate responses, blood lactate concentrations, and peak speed did not differ between halves, and all neuromuscular performance measures decreased after the match particularly after push-ups, although the rating of perceived exertion increased markedly compared with prematches. Although match physical performances were consistent across halves, the overall demands impaired test performance, especially for upper limb and closed kinetic chain exercise.

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Mário A.M. Simim, Marco Túlio de Mello, Bruno V.C. Silva, Dayane F. Rodrigues, João Paulo P. Rosa, Bruno Pena Couto, and Andressa da Silva

The aim of this review was to identify the main variables for load monitoring in training and competition situations in wheelchair sports. Studies were identified from a systematic search of three databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and SportDiscuss), with search phrases constructed from MeSH terms, alone or in combination, limited to English-language literature, and published up to January 2016. Our main findings were that variables related to external load (distance, speed, and duration) are used to monitor load in competition. In training situations, researchers have used variables related to internal load (heart rate and VO2); in both training and competition situations, researchers used internal load measurements (training impulse and ratings of perceived exertion). We conclude that the main variables for load monitoring in competitive situations were distance, speed, and duration, whereas the variables for training situations were heart rate, VO2, training impulse, and ratings of perceived exertion.

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Ioná Zalcman Zimberg, Cibele Aparecida Crispim, Claudia Ridel Juzwiak, Hanna Karen Moreira Antunes, Ben Edwards, Jim Waterhouse, Sérgio Tufik, and Marco Túlio de Mello

The objective of the study was to describe the food intake of adventure racers during a competition simulated in the laboratory. Ten male athletes with international experience in adventure races took part in the study. The experiment lasted 67 hr (total distance covered 477.3 km), but 3 athletes did not finish the race. Food intake was recorded throughout the simulation. Athletes’ total energy expenditure was greater than their total energy intake (24,516 vs. 14,738 kcal), and the athletes obtained significantly more energy from food than from supplements. Carbohydrate intake was below the recommendation of 0.5–1.0 g · kg−1 · hr−1. These results indicate that guidelines for multiday adventure races are needed.

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Diego de Alcantara Borba, Eduardo da Silva Alves, João Paulo Pereira Rosa, Lucas Alves Facundo, Carlos Magno Amaral Costa, Aldo Coelho Silva, Fernanda Veruska Narciso, Andressa Silva, and Marco Túlio de Mello

Background: Physical exercise plays an important role in metabolic health, especially in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) system. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of a single endurance and resistance exercise session on IGF-1 serum. Methods: The systematic review was performed in SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases. All analyses are based on random-effect models. The study identified 249 records of which 21 were included. Results: There was an effect of endurance exercise on total IGF-1 (P = .01), but not for free IGF-1 (P = .36). Resistance exercise similarly only affected total IGF-1 (P = .003) and not free IGF-1 (P = .37). The effect size indicated that total IGF-1 is more affected (ES = 0.81) by endurance than by resistance exercise (ES = 0.46). The present study showed that IGF-1 serum concentrations are altered by exercise type, but in conditions which are not well-defined. Conclusions: The systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that there is no determinant in serum IGF-1 changes for the exercise load characteristic. Therefore, physical exercise may be an alternative treatment to control changes in IGF-1 metabolism and blood concentration.