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  • Author: Margaret E. Stone x
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Jenna M. Kraska, Michael W. Ramsey, G. Gregory Haff, Nate Fethke, William A. Sands, Margaret E. Stone and Michael H. Stone


To investigate the relationship between maximum strength and differences in jump height during weighted and unweighted (body weight) static (SJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ).


Sixty-three collegiate athletes (mean ± SD; age= 19.9 ± 1.3 y; body mass = 72.9 ± 19.6 kg; height = 172.8 ± 7.7 cm) performed two trials of the SJ and CMJ with 0 kg and 20 kg on a force plate; and two trials of mid-thigh isometric clean pulls in a custom rack over a force plate (1000-Hz sampling). Jump height (JH) was calculated from fight time. Force-time curve analyses determined the following: isometric peak force (IPF), isometric force (IF) at 50, 90, and 250 ms, and isometric rates of force development (IRFD). Absolute and allometric scaled forces, [absolute force/(body mass0.67)], were used in correlations.


IPF, IRFD, F50a, F50, F90, and F250 showed moderate/strong correlations with SJ and CMJ height percent decrease from 0 to 20 kg. IPFa and F250a showed weak/moderate correlations with percent height decrease. Comparing strongest (n = 6) to weakest (n = 6): t tests revealed that stronger athletes (IPFa) performed superior to weaker athletes.


Data indicate the ability to produce higher peak and instantaneous forces and IRFD is related to JH and to smaller differences between weighted and unweighted jump heights. Stronger athletes jump higher and show smaller decrements in JH with load. A weighted jump may be a practical method of assessing relative strength levels.

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Keith B. Painter, Gregory G. Haff, Mike W. Ramsey, Jeff McBride, Travis Triplett, William A. Sands, Hugh S. Lamont, Margaret E. Stone and Michael H. Stone

Recently, the comparison of “periodized” strength training methods has been a focus of both exercise and sport science. Daily undulating periodization (DUP), using daily alterations in repetitions, has been developed and touted as a superior method of training, while block forms of programming for periodization have been questioned. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare block to DUP in Division I track and field athletes. Thirty-one athletes were assigned to either a 10-wk block or DUP training group in which sex, year, and event were matched. Over the course of the study, there were 4 testing sessions, which were used to evaluate a variety of strength characteristics. Although performance trends favored the block group for strength and rate of force development, no statistically significant differences were found between the 2 training groups. However, statistically different (P ≤ .05) values were found for estimated volume of work (volume load) and the amount of improvement per volume load between block and DUP groups. Based on calculated training efficiency scores, these data indicate that a block training model is more efficient than a DUP model in producing strength gains.

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Michael H. Stone, Kimberly Sanborn, Lucille L. Smith, Harold S. O'Bryant, Tommy Hoke, Alan C. Utter, Robert L. Johnson, Rhonda Boros, Joseph Hruby, Kyle C. Pierce, Margaret E. Stone and Brindley Garner

The purpose of this investigation was to study the efficacy of two dietary supplements on measures of body mass, body composition, and performance in 42 American football players. Group CM (n = 9) received creatine monohy-drate, Group P (n = 11) received calcium pyruvate. Group COM (n = 11) received a combination of calcium pyruvate (60%) and creatine (40%), and Group PL received a placebo. Tests were performed before (Tl) and after (T2) the 5-week supplementation period, during which the subjects continued their normal training schedules. Compared to P and PL. CM and COM showed significantly greater increases for body mass, lean body mass, 1 repetition maximum (RM) bench press, combined 1 RM squat and bench press, and static vertical jump (SVJ) power output. Peak rate of force development for SVJ was significantly greater for CM compared to P and PL. Creatine and the combination supplement enhanced training adaptations associated with body mass/composition, maximum strength, and SVJ; however, pyruvate supplementation alone was ineffective.