Purpose: To examine a district Online Physical Education (OLPE) course and determine the degree to which its design aligns with the National Association for Sport and Physical Education Initial Guidelines for OLPE (2007). Method: A thorough document analysis of the course website and student and teacher online surveys provided a detailed description of the course design and illustrated the degree of design alignment. Results: There was a strong alignment with eight of the 10 guidelines and a moderate alignment with two of the 10 guidelines. Discussion/Conclusion: Results contribute to the overall knowledge base of district OLPE programs and set the stage for future research. Revisions to the guidelines along with additional data collection measures are recommended to better capture evidence of alignment to promote quality teaching and learning in OLPE environments.
Margaret T. Harris and Mike Metzler
Rebecca T. Viner, Margaret Harris, Jackie R. Berning and Nanna L. Meyer
The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29–49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1–4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score < 0) across a season. Energy intake (EI) and exercise energy expenditure during preseason (PS), competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); < 30 kcal·kg fat-free mass (FFM)−1·day−1] during PS, 90% during C, and 80% during OS (range: 3–37 kcal·kg FFM−1·day−1). Ninety percent of cyclists had LEA during ≥ 1 training period, and 70% had LEA across the season. Seventy percent of cyclists were identified as restrained eaters who consciously restrict EI as a means of weight control. Mean daily carbohydrate intake was below sport nutrition recommendations during each training period (PS: 3.9 ± 1.1 g·kg−1·day−1, p < .001; C: 4.3 ± 1.4 g·kg−1·day−1, p = .005; OS: 3.7 ± 1.4 g·kg−1·day−1, p = .01). There were no differences in EA and EI·kg−1 between male and female cyclists and road and off-road cyclists. Low EI, and specifically low carbohydrate intake, appears to be the main contributor to chronic LEA in these cyclists. Adult male and female competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes.