The purpose of the study was to determine whether resistance training (RT) or a combination of resistance and aerobic training (CT) resulted in the most improvement in measures of functional ability in functionally limited elders. Elderly adults who exhibited some limits in functional ability were randomly assigned to either a CT, RT, or control (C) group. Both RT and CT exercised three times per week for 16 weeks. At Weeks 0 and 17, participants completed six measures of strength and six functional tests. A 3 (group) × 3 (time) ANOVA with repeated measures on the time factor was used to analyze the results. CT and RT scored significantly better than C at Week 17 for biceps curl, elbow extension, chair stand, and time up the stairs. These findings demonstrate that RT and CT are both effective at increasing measures of strength and functional ability in elderly adults who begin exercise with functional limitations.
Mariane Fahlman, Amy Morgan, Nancy McNevin, Robert Topp and Debra Boardley
Bo Shen, Nate McCaughtry, Jeffrey J. Martin and Mariane Fahlman
With the belief that theoretical integration in motivation may help us better understand motivational behavior, we designed this study to explore adolescents’ motivational profiles and their associations with knowledge acquisition, leisure-time exercise behaviors, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Middle school students from a large urban inner-city school district (N = 603, ages 12–14) completed questionnaires assessing motivational constructs and leisure-time exercise behavior. Knowledge and cardiorespiratory fitness were also assessed with a knowledge test and the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test, respectively. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, we found that students’ motivation in physical education could be explained from a multi-theoretical perspective. The interactive patterns among different motivation constructs were homogeneous overall and associated with in-class effort, knowledge, and leisure-time exercise behavior. These findings suggest that students’ development in physical education may depend upon a collective impact of changes in knowledge, physical activity ability, and sources of motivation.
Mariane M. Fahlman, Amy L. Morgan, Nancy McNevin, Debra J. Boardley and Robert Topp
The study investigated the effects of 16 weeks of exercise training on s-IgA in a population of low-functioning elderly. Forty-nine volunteers were randomly divided into 4 groups: strength training (ST), aerobic training (AT), a combination (CT), or control (C). ST demonstrated a significant increase in s-IgA from pre to post and a significant increase in the secretion rate from pre to mid and post. AT demonstrated a significant increase in s-IgA from pre to mid to post with no subsequent change in the secretion rate. There were no significant changes across time in CT or C, but C had consistently lower s-IgA values at post than did CT, ST, or AT, and the secretion rate was significantly higher in CT than C at mid and post. The results demonstrate that moderate exercise has a positive effect on mucosal immunity as measured by s-IgA in low-functioning elderly, suggesting a greater resistance to upper respiratory-tract infection with involvement in an exercise program.
Bo Shen, Nate McCaughtry, Jeffrey J. Martin, Mariane Fahlman and Alex C. Garn
A sense of relatedness is individuals’ views about themselves as connected to others and worthy of love and respect from others. Using the Self-System Model of Motivational Development as the framework, this study was designed to examine associations of urban high-school girls’ relatedness toward teachers and peers with their behavioral and emotional engagements in physical education. Participants (N = 184, ages 15–18) completed questionnaires assessing relevant psychological and behavioral constructs while their teachers also completed corresponding measures during classes. Regression analyses revealed that relatedness toward teachers and peers had direct and interactive roles in both behavioral and emotional engagements. Although relatedness to teachers was the most pronounced predictor, feeling related to peers might have an added effect for the students who did not feel connected. The findings support that nurturing quality relationships between and among both teachers and peers may hold promise for enhancing learning.
Alex C. Garn, Nate McCaughtry, Bo Shen, Jeffrey J. Martin and Mariane Fahlman
This study investigated the relationships among four distinct types of social goals, effort, and disruptive behavior in urban physical education. Social responsibility, affiliation, recognition, status goals, along with effort and disruptive behavior in physical education were reported by high school physical education students (N = 314) from three urban schools. Findings from correlation and structural equation modeling analyses revealed that social responsibility goals had a positive relationship with effort and an inverse relationship with disruptive behavior. Social status goals demonstrated a positive relationship with disruptive behavior and no relationship with effort. Social recognition goal results were mixed, as they had positive relationships to both effort and disruptive behavior while social affiliation goals were unrelated to effort or disruptive behavior. Application of these results suggests that physical educators who are able to identify the diverse social motives that underlie students’ goals can maximize learning opportunities by increasing student effort and minimizing disruptive behavior.
Alex C. Garn, Nate McCaughtry, Noel L. Kulik, Michele Kaseta, Kim Maljak, Laurel Whalen, Bo Shen, Jeffrey J. Martin and Mariane Fahlman
Grounded in social cognitive theory, the purpose of this study was to examine leaders’ and students’ perspectives of factors that contribute to effective voluntary after-school physical activity clubs. Data were collected over two-years via field observations (n= 115) and interviews with students (n = 278) and adult leaders (n = 126). Results highlighted interconnections among personal and environmental facilitators such as enthusiastic and caring leaders, multidimensional recruiting strategies, supportive and friendly club climates, and culturally relevant physical activities. Structural barriers such as a lack of administrative support, student hunger, and inadequate transportation options were also identified by leaders and students. While previous after-school physical activity club research has focused primarily on measuring physical activity increases, these students and leaders voiced valuable perspectives that contribute to understand why some initiatives fail and others succeed from a social cognitive theory perspective.