This study describes game play patterns in two beginning volleyball classes for the set, forearm pass, serve, and spike. The subjects, 58 male and female university students, were pretested and placed into ability groups. The 22 days of class were videotaped and the videotapes were analyzed by tallying successful and unsuccessful trials for the four skills. A one-way analysis of variance was used to determine any differences between classes and between ability groups for contacts per serve and percentage of successful trials. No significant difference was reported between classes, but there were significant differences between ability groups for contacts per serve and percentage of successful trials except for spike trials. Plots provided the semester game play patterns for analysis and indicated that the low-ability group contacted the ball fewer times than the other groups and was not as successful when contact was made. According to the plot patterns, game play did not result in performance improvement. Instruction needs to incorporate gamelike drills and lead-up games to bridge the gap from skill drills to game play.
Marilyn Buck and Joyce M. Harrison
Marilyn Buck, Joyce M. Harrison and G. Rex Bryce
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between learning trials and achievement for four volleyball skills—set, forearm pass, serve, and spike. The subjects studied totaled 58 male and female students in two university beginning-volleyball classes. Twenty-two class periods were videotaped, and the tapes were analyzed to determine all correct and incorrect skill trials made by each student each day for the four skills studied. The data analysis included learning trials, learning curves, and achievement. The most consistent result of the statistical analyses was the importance of the total correct trials in determining achievement. For the forearm pass, the serve, and the spike, outside-of-class participation increased the number of total correct trials. The beginning skill level, represented by the pretest score, also influenced achievement. Average trials per day per student were very low, and low-skilled students did not get as many correct or total trials as high-skilled students. This study supports previous studies that suggest that discrete trials might be a more appropriate measure of student achievement than ALT-PE or time-on-task.
Joyce M. Harrison, Gilbert W. Fellingham, Marilyn M. Buck and Tracy L. Pellett
This study compared volleyball achievement and task-specific self-efficacy for high-, medium-, and low-skilled learners using two teaching styles. Students were pre-, mid-, and posttested on skills and self-efficacy and were ability grouped from skill pretest scores. Learning trials were tallied for 58 students in two university classes, and growth curves for each student were created by plotting the percentages of successful trials against the 19 instructional days. ANOVA, used to determine relationships between the teaching styles and the rate of change in volleyball performance, revealed two significant aptitude treatment interactions (ATIs). For skill practice, low-skilled learners did better with command style on the set, and the practice style was best for low-skilled learners on the spike. Self-efficacy increased for all students, with no significant difference in style.