Tales C. Amorim, Mario R. Azevedo and Pedro C. Hallal
To evaluate the association between the physical and social environment and physical activity (leisure-time and transport-related) in a population-based sample of adults.
Cross-sectional study including 972 adults (20−69 years) living in the urban area of Pelotas, Brazil. Physical activity was measured using the long International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Environmental variables were assessed using a modified version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale.
69.8% (95% CI = 66.9−72.7) and 51.9% (95% CI = 48.8−55.1) of the subjects did not reach 150 min/wk on leisure-time and transport-related physical activity, respectively. Subjects living near green areas were more likely to be active in leisure-time, as well as those who reported to live in safe neighborhoods. Transport-related physical activity was higher among individuals living in areas with garbage accumulation, and was lower among those living in neighborhoods which are difficult to walk or cycle due to traffic. Social support was strongly associated with leisure-time physical activity.
Safety investments, which are urgently required in Brazil, are likely to have a desirable side effect at increasing physical activity at the population level. Building enjoyable and safe public spaces for physical activity practice must be prioritized.
Pedro C. Hallal, Diana C. Parra, Mario R. Azevedo, Michael Pratt and Ross C. Brownson
Pedro C. Hallal, Eduardo Simoes, Felipe F. Reichert, Mario R. Azevedo, Luiz R. Ramos, Michael Pratt and Ross C. Brownson
To evaluate the validity and reliability of the telephone-administered long IPAQ version.
The questionnaire was administered by telephone to adults on days 1 and 6. On day 1, the same questionnaire was administered by face-to-face interview, and accelerometers were delivered to subjects. Reliability was measured by comparing data collected using the telephone questionnaire on days 1 and 6. Validity was measured by comparing the telephone questionnaire data with (a) face-to-face questionnaire and (b) accelerometry.
Data from all instruments were available for 156 individuals. The Spearman correlation coefficient for telephone interview reliability was 0.92 for the leisure-time section of IPAQ, and 0.87 for the transport-related section of IPAQ. The telephone interview reliability kappa was 0.78. The Spearman correlation between the telephone-administered and the face-to-face questionnaire was 0.94 for the leisure-time and 0.82 for the transport-related section. The kappa was 0.69. There was a positive association between quartiles of accelerometer data and total telephone-administered IPAQ score (P < .001). The Spearman correlation was 0.22.
The telephone-administered IPAQ presented almost perfect reliability and very high agreement with the face-to-face version. The agreement with accelerometer data were fair for the continuous score, but moderate for the categorical physical activity variables.
Pedro C. Hallal, Pitágoras T. Machado, Giovâni F. Del Duca, Inácio C. Silva, Tales C. Amorim, Thiago T. Borges, Airton J. Rombaldi, Mario R. Azevedo and Alan G. Knuth
To evaluate the prevalence of physical activity advice, the source of the information, and the types of recommendation in a population-based sample of adults living in South Brazil.
Population-based study including 972 adults living in Pelotas, Brazil. The outcome variable was based on the following question: “Has anyone ever recommended you to practice physical activity”? If the answer was positive, we asked who was responsible for the prescription (an open question, which was categorized later) and which recommendation was done.
The prevalence of physical activity advice was 56.2% (95% CI 52.3−60.1). Physical activity advice was mostly done by physicians (92.5%). Walking was, by far, the most frequent recommendation. Females were more likely to receive advice for physical activity practice than males (OR 1.74; 95% CI 1.30−2.31). Age, economic level, body mass index and leisure-time physical activity were positively associated with physical activity advice, while self-reported health presented an inverse association with the outcome.
The prevalence of physical activity advice was high in this sample, suggesting that the Brazilian health system is incorporating physical activity in its routine.