Three experiments examined students’ calibration in physical education in relation to task characteristics. Participants in the 3 experiments were 388 students. Calibration accuracy and bias were calculated based on students’ predicted and actual performance in tests including variations of a sport task (basketball shooting) and tasks from different sports (basketball and soccer). An overconfidence effect was found in all experiments, and evidence regarding the hard–easy effect emerged. High compared with low performers were more accurate, and some variations with respect to gender also emerged. The magnitude of calibration error was similar across tasks, whereas approximately half of the students were consistent in the direction of calibration (most of them were overestimators). Results are discussed with reference to theoretical and empirical evidence associated with performance calibration and self-regulated learning in physical education. Methodological issues, practical implications, and future directions are also discussed.
Athanasios Kolovelonis and Marios Goudas
Yannis Theodorakis, Konstantinos Bagiatis and Marios Goudas
The aim of this study was to examine attitudes and intentions of physical education students toward teaching individuals with disabilities. The planned behavior model and two exogenous variables (attitude strength and role identity) were used to examine antecedents of students’ intentions for teaching individuals with disabilities in the future. The sample consisted of 99 university students taking adapted physical education courses. Structural equation modeling analysis showed that the role identity and attitude strength variables mediated the effects of subjective norms and attitudes toward behavior on intention. Also, perceived behavioral control was not a direct determinant of intention but affected the attitude strength variable. Findings are discussed in terms of theoretical as well as practical implications for understanding attitude-behavior relationships in physical education for special populations. It seems that professionals’ intentions to work with individuals with disabilities are formed as part of their role identity in the society and are affected by professionals’ attitude confidence toward teaching individuals with disabilities.
Marios Goudas, Stuart Biddle and Kenneth Fox
This study examined the relationship between dispositional achievement goal orientations and intrinsic motivation following physical fitness testing. Students, aged 11–15 years, completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, participated in the 20-m progressive shuttle run test, and then completed a modified Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). Using their goal orientations, students were placed into one of four groups: low in both task and ego, high ego/low task, high task/low ego, and high in both task and ego. A MANOVA indicated that for students in the “high” and “low” performance groups, differences in intrinsic motivation between goal orientation groups were found. Perceived success and goal orientations had independent effects on intrinsic motivation for the lower performance group but interacted to influence intrinsic motivation for the higher performance group. It is concluded that children have different motivational reactions to fitness testing, depending on their goal profile, performance, and perceived success.
Marios Goudas, Stuart Biddle, Kenneth Fox and Martin Underwood
The purpose of this study was to examine the motivational effects of two different teaching styles in one sport activity. One class of 24 girls was taught track and field for 10 weeks, each lesson being taught with either a direct (practice) or a differentiated (inclusion) teaching style. After each lesson the girls completed self-report measures of intrinsic motivation and goal involvement. On course completion, 8 girls were interviewed to assess their reactions to the course. ANOVA showed that students reporting higher levels of competence, autonomy, and task orientation had higher intrinsic motivation scores throughout the course. However, teaching style was also found to have an independent effect; the differentiated style was associated with higher levels of intrinsic motivation and task goal involvement and lower levels of work avoidance involvement. A differentiated teaching style can positively influence young girls’ reactions to a sports activity independently of perceptions of goal orientations, autonomy, and competence.
Yannis Theodorakis, Anastasia Beneca, Parascevi Malliou and Marios Goudas
The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of goal setting on performance and on a number of psychological variables such as self-efficacy, pretesting anxiety, and self-satisfaction during an injury rehabilitation program. An experimental group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 17) of injured physical education students were studied. Both groups underwent a 4-week quadriceps strengthening program on an isokinetic dynamometer, with the experimental group setting specific personal goals in each training session. The experimental group improved in performance significantly more than the control group. Although both groups exhibited an increase in self-efficacy and a decrease in pretesting anxiety, only the experimental group had an increase in self-satisfaction with performance. Results confirm that incorporating goal setting in the rehabilitation process enhances rehabilitation results.