This systematic review examines research published from 2009 to 2015 on inclusion of children with disabilities in physical education according to the PRISMA guidelines. We have used a stakeholder approach as a framework for organizing and discussing the results. The searches yielded 535 studies, of which 112 were included. The systematic review outlines which stakeholder perspectives received the most attention, the main themes and findings, the methodological trends that governed the research contribution, and the country of data collection. The main findings indicated that perspectives of pre- and in-service teachers and studies of attitudes still dominate the research contributions. The strengths and limitations of the research conducted to date highlight that several other perspectives need to be discussed. Especially important is seeking information from children with disabilities themselves. Other barriers and facilitators perceived by those actively involved in the inclusion process need to be sought.
Terese Wilhelmsen and Marit Sørensen
Marit Sørensen and Nina Kahrs
The Norwegian Olympic Committee and Confederation of Sports’ commitment to integrate disability sport in the sport organizations for the able-bodied was evaluated based upon a description of an ideal, inclusive sports organization. Data were collected primarily through interviews and questionnaires. The results indicate that the integration process proceeded more slowly than originally intended. There were still unresolved matters on the structural/organizational level, and the sports federations’ officials were uncertain about the extent of their responsibility and the role of the new sports organization for persons with a disability. More relevant competence was needed in the organization. All organizations reported improved attitudes toward individuals with a disability and indicated that integration was a demanding enterprise.
Anne Marte Pensgaard and Marit Sorensen
Our purpose is to propose a model of “Empowerment through the sport context” to guide psychosocial research in disability sport. We discuss the concept of empowerment in relation to sport for individuals with disabilities. Expanding upon the work of Hutzler (1990), we include three levels of empowerment (societal, group, and individual level) in our approach. Important moderators are age of onset of disability, gender, and type of disability. Important mediators are (a) at the individual level, achievement goals, identity, and self-efficacy; (b) at the group level, motivational climate, group identity, and collective efficacy; and finally, (c) at the societal level, the cultural context and political efficacy. Several methodological considerations are discussed, and various solutions are suggested. We also discuss the critiques that have emerged in relation to the use of the empowerment concept.
Terese Wilhelmsen, Marit Sørensen and Ørnulf N. Seippel
This article is focused on how combinations of motivational attributes and motivational climates support social and pedagogical inclusion in physical education among children with disabilities. Theoretically, the authors integrate tenets from achievement-goal theory and self-determination theory. To capture the motivational complexity underlying children’s experiences of inclusion in physical education, they use a 2-step fuzzy qualitative comparative analysis. The analyses of contextual conditions yielded 2 sufficient inclusion-supportive climates, namely a physically inclusive and mastery-oriented climate or a physical inclusive, autonomy-supportive, and low performance-oriented climate. The configurations of motivational attributes in the inclusion-supportive climates indicated 4 sufficient pathways to social and pedagogical inclusion. The path with the largest coverage of children was in the physically inclusive and mastery-oriented climate and represented children who were task and ego oriented and low on amotivation and experienced satisfaction of the need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
Janet Buckworth, Jean Côté, Stephanie J. Hanrahan, Cathy Lirgg, David Lavallee, G. Neil Martin and Marit Sørensen
Edited by J. Robert Grove
Nancy S. Diehl, Britton W. Brewer, Judy L. Van Raalte, Darlene Shaw, Patricia L. Fiero and Marit Sørensen
In a study examining the relationships between two social psychological factors and exercise partner preferences, 97 women (mean age 32.42; SD = 9.85 years) provided demographic information, indicated their exercise partner preference, and completed measures of social physique anxiety (SPA) and perceived social discomfort (PSD) in exercise settings. Chi-square analyses on PSD and exercise partner preferences revealed significant effects, X2 (4) = 34.53, p < .001. Logistic regression revealed an effect for the SPA X PSD interaction, LR = 0.97, p < .01. When PSD was low, SPA had little impact on the odds of selecting a partner. When PSD and SPA were high, there were far lower odds of selecting an exercise partner. Overall, based upon the results, the number of exercise partners may be an important issue for women and women with high SPA may use an exercise partner to help moderate their anxiety, thereby increasing the palatability of the exercise setting.