This study surveyed 155 gender and sexual minority (GSM) sport participants to examine 1) nonverbal and verbal gender-based and sexual harassment by a coach in relation to psychological ill-being, and 2) differences in harassment due to gender and sexual orientation. Self-reported data from 93 females and 62 males was collected anonymously and analyzed using Spearman’s rank-order correlations and cross-tabulation with chi-square tests. Nonverbal and verbal gender-based and sexual harassment by a coach was related to more frequent stress, psychosomatic symptoms and depressive symptoms only in male GSM sport participants. Undermining was related to more frequent depressive symptoms in males. There were no statistically significant gender differences in harassment. As for sexual orientation, there was a statistically significant association between verbal harassment by the coach and sexual orientation. The present findings have scientific, educational and clinical importance for sport psychologists involved in research, coach education and applied work.
Anna Kavoura, Alex Channon, and Marja Kokkonen
This study focuses on transgender experiences in martial arts. Interviews with three Finnish and two British transgender martial artists were thematically analyzed, and findings were interpreted through the lens of queer theory. Two themes were identified related to the ways that transgender martial artists experience their sporting contexts, namely martial arts as an empowering and inclusive context and the challenges related to being transgender in martial arts. Two themes were also identified when it comes to participants’ strategies for coping with cis-/heteronormativity in martial arts. Whenever possible, participants employed social change strategies, whereas other times, they drew on self-care strategies. Following this, we suggest a need for context-specific, protective policies; nonbinary means of organizing sport; and gender diversity education for instructors to better cater for the specific needs of transgender people in sport.