The purpose of this study was to examine if offspring physical activity may affect the relationship between maternal overweight and offspring fatness and blood pressure (BP). Subjects included 144 maternal-child pairs (n = 74 boys and 70 girls, mean age = 7.3 yrs). Maternal prepregnancy BMI was determined by self-report. Offspring characteristics included resting systolic and diastolic BP, body fatness by dual energy x-ray absorbtiometry, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) using the Actigraph accelerometer. Children whose mothers were overweight or obese prepregnancy (Prepreg OW) were significantly larger and fatter than children from mothers with a normal prepregnancy BMI (Prepreg NORM). Prepreg OW children also had higher mean arterial pressure than Prepreg NORM children. BP values were not different across maternal Prepreg BMI/MVPA groups. Percent fat was significantly different across Prepreg BMI/MVPA groups. Prepreg OW children that did not meet the daily recommended value of MVPA were the fattest. Prepreg OW children that attained 360 min of MVPA/day had a mean percent body fat that was similar to Prepreg NORM children of either MVPA group.
Joey C. Eisenman, Mark A. Sarzynski, Jerod Tucker and Kate A. Heelan
Leanna M. Ross, Jacob L. Barber, Alexander C. McLain, R. Glenn Weaver, Xuemei Sui, Steven N. Blair and Mark A. Sarzynski
Background: This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and ideal cardiovascular health (CVH). Methods: CRF and the 7 CVH components were measured in 11,590 (8865 males; 2725 females) adults at baseline and in 2532 (2160 males; 372 females) adults with at least one follow-up examination from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Ideal CVH score was calculated as a composite of 7 measures, each scored 0 to 2. CVH groups were based on participant point score: ≤7 (poor), 8 to 11 (intermediate), and 12 to 14 (ideal). Analyses included general linear, logistic regression, and linear mixed models. Results: At baseline, participants in the high CRF category had 21% and 45% higher mean CVH scores than those in the moderate and poor CRF categories (P < .001). The adjusted odds (95% confidence interval) of being in the poor CVH group at baseline were 4.9 (4.4–5.4) and 16.9 (14.3–19.9) times greater for individuals with moderate and low CRF, respectively, compared with those with high CRF (P < .001). Longitudinal analysis found that for every 1-minute increase in treadmill time, CVH score increased by 0.23 units (P < .001) independent of age, sex, exam number, and exam year. Conclusions: Higher CRF is associated with better CVH profiles, and improving CRF over time is independently associated with greater improvements in CVH.
Mark A. Sarzynski, Joey C. Eisenmann, Gregory J. Welk, Jared Tucker, Kim Glenn, Max Rothschild and Kate Heelan
The present study examined the association between the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism, physical activity, and resting blood pressure (BP) in a sample of 132 children (48.4% female). Children attaining 60 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) possessed lower % body fat (29% vs 24%, p < .05). Resting BP did not significantly differ between genotypes. Furthermore, partial correlations between MVPA and BP were low and did not vary by ACE genotype. Thus, the ACE I/D genotype is not associated with BP and does not modify the relationship between physical activity and BP in this sample of children.