Background: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for poor health and obesity. The authors describe obesity-related movement behaviors in children with ADHD, determine higher risk groups, and compare with children with other disorders. Methods: Physical activity (PA), sleep, and screen time of children with ADHD (aged 6–18 y) were compared with recommendations and with behaviors of children with autism, asthma, and a normative group using 2011 National Survey of Child Health data. Results: Approximately one-third of children with ADHD participated in daily PA and half in sports in the past year. Older children with ADHD were less likely to get daily PA, get enough sleep, and limit screen time to <2 hours per day. Obese children had lower odds of daily PA. Children who had lower socioeconomic status, or severe ADHD, had lower odds of sports participation. Children with ADHD had 50% lower odds of sports participation than children with asthma. Conclusions: Children with ADHD did not engage in recommended amounts of PA, sleep, and screen time. Children with ADHD who are older, poor, obese, and/or with more severe symptoms are at higher risk for suboptimal movement behaviors. These domains represent novel treatment targets in ADHD youth.
Pooja S. Tandon, Tyler Sasser, Erin S. Gonzalez, Kathryn B. Whitlock, Dimitri A. Christakis and Mark A. Stein
Mark Eys, M. Blair Evans, Luc J. Martin, Jeannine Ohlert, Svenja A. Wolf, Michael Van Bussel and Charlotte Steins
A previous meta-analysis examining the relationship between cohesion and performance (Carron, Colman, Wheeler, & Stevens, 2002) revealed that this relationship was significantly stronger for female teams as compared with male teams. The purpose of the current study was to explore perceptions of the cohesion-performance relationship by coaches who have led teams of both genders. Semistructured interviews were employed with Canadian and German coaches with previous experience leading both male and female sport teams. The information obtained through the interviews yielded a number of categories pertaining to potential similarities and differences within female and male sport teams including: (a) the nature of cohesion (e.g., direction of the cohesion-performance relationship), (b) antecedents of cohesion (e.g., approaches to conflict), and (c) the management of cohesion (e.g., developing social cohesion). Overall, the results offer testable propositions regarding gender differences and group involvement in a sport context as well as informing best practices such that teams can attain optimal performance.