In this article, the authors report the results of a case study examining a group-based exercise program for older adult men. The purpose of the investigation was to identify the elements of this program responsible for its appeal. Interviews, conducted with a purposely sampled subset of program members, were subject to content-analytic procedures. Participants identified social connectedness (reflected by themes of demographic homogeneity, support and care, customs and traditions, and interpersonal comparisons) and supportive leadership behaviors (constituted by communication, the provision of choice, and individualized attention) as major attractions in the program. A few participants also noted the challenge that exists when a program is seen by some as being a social program that provides opportunities for exercise and by others as an exercise program that provides opportunities for socializing. Findings are discussed in relation to contextual factors associated with older adult men’s involvement in physical activity programs.
William L. Dunlop and Mark R. Beauchamp
Mark R. Beauchamp and Lauren C. Whinton
One-day equestrian eventing comprises three disciplines: dressage, show-jumping, and cross-country. Participants in the present study were 187 riders (38 M, 149 F) competing in one of two intermediate-level 1-day competitions. Participants’ perceptions of their own (self-efficacy) and their horses’ abilities (other-efficacy) were assessed 30 minutes prior to each stage of competition and examined in relation to subsequent riding performance. For dressage, self efficacy (β = –.20, p < .05) and other-efficacy (β = –.26, p < .01) were each able to explain unique variance in dressage performance (adj. R 2 = .16). However, for both show-jumping and cross-country disciplines, neither form of efficacy was associated with the corresponding measure of riding performance. The results for show-jumping and cross-country may be explained by the lack of variability and heavily skewed nature of the performance data in these two contexts. Consistent with previous research, the results for dressage suggest that self-efficacy may be an important predictor of performance in sport. However, in line with theorizing by Lent and Lopez (2002), the results suggest that other-efficacy may also be an important predictor of behavioral enactment within performing dyads.
Ben Jackson, Peter Knapp and Mark R. Beauchamp
The purpose of the current study was to identify putative antecedents and consequences associated with self-efficacy, other-efficacy, and relation-inferred self-efficacy, within the context of elite coach-athlete dyads. Semistructured interviews were conducted with each member of six international-level coach-athlete partnerships, and data were analyzed using inductive and deductive content analytic techniques. Results for both athletes and coaches demonstrated that the above ‘tripartite efficacy beliefs’ (cf. Lent & Lopez, 2002) were identified as originating from perceptions regarding oneself, inferences regarding the ‘other’ dyad member (e.g., the athlete’s coach), as well as the dyad as a whole. Results also revealed that the tripartite efficacy constructs were interrelated, and independently associated with a number of positive task-related and relationship-oriented consequences. Findings are considered in relation to developing and sustaining effective coach-athlete relationships at the elite level.
Ben Jackson, Mark R. Beauchamp and Peter Knapp
The first purpose of this study was to examine the interrelationships among three forms of relational efficacy within performing dyads, namely, self-efficacy, other-efficacy, and relation-inferred self-efficacy. The second objective was to examine the relationships between these efficacy beliefs and athletes’ perceptions of their commitment to and satisfaction with their current partnership. Participants were 120 junior tennis players (age, M = 14.30 years, SD = 1.21) performing within 60 intact pairs (i.e., doubles). Results revealed that self-efficacy and other-efficacy were predictive of athlete commitment and satisfaction, respectively. In addition, by utilizing actor–partner interdependence models, partner as well as actor effects were evident. The findings illustrate that relational efficacy beliefs may not only have implications for the individual holding such beliefs, but also for his or her relational partner. Implications for the future study of efficacy beliefs within dyadic contexts are discussed.
Ben Jackson, Peter Knapp and Mark R. Beauchamp
Drawing from Lent and Lopez’s (2002) “tripartite” model of relational efficacy, the overall purpose of this study was to examine antecedents and consequences of self-effcacy, other-efficacy, and relation-inferred self-efficacy (RISE) within six international-level athlete dyads. Semistructured interviews were conducted and data were content analyzed using deductive and inductive procedures. Sources of efficacy emerged in relation to perceptions regarding (i) oneself, (ii) one’s partner, (iii) the dyad/relationship, and (iv) external factors. Results also revealed the emergence of a number of salient intrapersonal and interpersonal outcomes, incorporating cognitive, affective, as well as behavioral consequences. Implications for theory development and future research are considered, and applied propositions are discussed with regard to effective relationship management in elite sport.
Amy S. Welch, Angie Hulley and Mark Beauchamp
To investigate the relationship between cognitive and affective responses during acute exercise, 24 low-active females completed two 30-min bouts of cycle ergometer exercise at 90% of the ventilatory threshold. In one condition participants had full knowledge of the exercise duration (KD); in the other, exercise duration was unknown (UD). Affect and self-efficacy were measured before and every 3 min during exercise, and affect was also measured postexercise. Affect declined throughout the first half of both conditions, and continued its decline until the end of the UD condition, when a rebound effect was observed. Self-efficacy during exercise displayed a similar pattern. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that during-exercise self-efficacy was a stronger predictor of during-exercise affect than preexercise self-efficacy, and that this relationship was strongest at the end of exercise when duration was unknown. These results indicate that repetitive cognitive appraisal of self and the task could impact the exercise experiences of low-active women during the adoption phase of an exercise program.
William L. Dunlop, Daniel J. Beatty and Mark R. Beauchamp
This research examined the relative effects of other-efficacy and self-efficacy beliefs in relation to individual performance within a cooperative dyadic setting. Pairs of female participants (M age = 20.08, SD = 1.93) performed three practice trials on a dyadic dance-based videogame. Other-efficacy and self-efficacy beliefs were then manipulated through the provision of bogus feedback regarding each pair member's coordination abilities. Following the administration of this feedback, pairs performed a final trial on this dance-based task. The results revealed a main effect for other-efficacy, such that participants in the enhanced other-efficacy conditions outperformed those in the inhibited other-efficacy conditions on this task. A main effect for self-efficacy was not observed. Furthermore, there was no evidence of an interaction between other-efficacy and self-efficacy. The results of this study suggest that other-efficacy may supersede the effects of self-efficacy in supporting personal performance within cooperative relational contexts.
Mark R. Beauchamp, Alan Maclachlan and Andrew M. Lothian
Contemporary group dynamics theorists and practitioners consistently highlight the importance of effective communication in facilitating successful team functioning (cf. Carron & Hausenblas, 1998). In this review paper, we explore how an understanding of Jungian preferences (cf. Jung, 1921/1971a) can provide an important theory-driven framework for those concerned with group dynamics in sport. As a basis for improved interaction, this model suggests that in order to effectively “adapt and connect” with other team members, one must first develop an acute understanding of self as well as the patterns of preferences that characterize those with whom one interacts. In this paper, we discuss the theoretical structure of this model and explain how the model can inform group dynamics interventions in sport.
Mark A. Eys, James Hardy, Albert V. Carron and Mark R. Beauchamp
The general purpose of the present study was to determine if perceptions of team cohesion are related to the interpretation athletes attach to their precompetition anxiety. Specifically examined was the association between athlete perceptions of task cohesiveness (Individual Attractions to the Group– Task, ATG-T, and Group Integration–Task, GI-T) and the degree to which perceptions of the intensity of precompetition anxiety symptoms (cognitive and somatic) were viewed as facilitative versus debilitative. Participants were athletes (N = 392) from the sports of soccer, rugby, and field hockey. Each athlete completed the Group Environment Questionnaire (Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985) after a practice session. A directionally modified version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, & Smith, 1990) was completed just prior to a competition. Results showed that athletes who perceived their cognitive anxiety as facilitative had higher perceptions of both ATG-T and GI-T, χ2 (2, N = 260) = 8.96, p < .05, than athletes who perceived their cognitive anxiety as debilitative. Also, athletes who perceived their somatic anxiety as facilitative had higher perceptions of GI-T, χ2 (2, N = 249) = 5.85, p < .05.
Mark A. Eys, Albert V. Carron, Mark R. Beauchamp and Steven R. Bray
The general purpose of the present study was to examine the nature of role ambiguity in sport teams and to explore the construct validity of the operational definition of role ambiguity developed by Beauchamp, Bray, Eys, and Carron (2002). Role ambiguity was operationalized as a multidimensional construct (Scope of Responsibilities, Behavioral Responsibilities, Evaluation of Performance, and Consequences of Not Fulfilling Responsibilities) that occurs in two contexts, offense and defense. Consistent with the a priori hypothesis, perceptions of role ambiguity exhibited some degree of within-group consistency and group-level variability, but most of the variance in role ambiguity was seen at the individual level. Also, perceptions of role ambiguity decreased from early to late season. Finally, veteran athletes experienced less role ambiguity than first-year athletes at the beginning of the season, but not at the end. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.