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Mark Conner, Wendy Rodgers, and Terra Murray

The present study examined the moderating role of conscientiousness within the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for exercise behavior during usual vs. unusual context. Affective and cognitive attitude, subjective and descriptive norm, perceived behavioral control, behavioral intention, past behavior, conscientiousness, and self-reported behavior were assessed in relation to exercising in a sample of university students (n = 146). Conscientiousness was found to significantly moderate the intention–behavior relationship when the behavior was performed in unusual context (exercising during a reading week of term), but not when behavior was performed in usual context (exercising during a normal week of term). The find-ings indicate a role for conscientiousness in understanding intention–behavior relationships when the context of behavior is changing or unknown.

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Paul Norman and Mark Conner

Two studies on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and exercise behavior are reported that consider the mediating and moderating effects of planning on intention-behavior relationships. Undergraduate students (N = 125 and N = 102) completed questionnaires assessing TPB constructs, planning, and past exercise behavior. The TPB was highly predictive of exercise intentions (R 2 = .37 and .62) and future behavior (R 2 = .43 and .49) assessed at 2 weeks (Study 1) and 1 week (Study 2) follow-up. Planning was found to mediate the impact of intention on future behavior (Study 2) and to moderate the intention/behavior relationship (both studies). The results are discussed in relation to recent models of health behavior that focus on the volitional (i.e., postdecisional) phase of health behavior.

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Natalie Jayne Taylor, Scott E. Crouter, Rebecca J. Lawton, Mark T. Conner, and Andy Prestwich


Precise measurement of physical activity (PA) is required to identify current levels and changes in PA within a population, and to gauge effectiveness of interventions.


The Online Self-reported Walking and Exercise Questionnaire (OSWEQ) was developed for monitoring PA via the Web. Forty-nine participants (mean ± SD; age = 27 ± 11.9yrs) completed the OSWEQ and International PA Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form 3 times [T1/T2/T3 (separated by 7-days)] and wore an Actigraph-GT3X-accelerometer for 7-days between T2-T3. For each measure, estimates of average MET·min·day−1 and time spent in moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA) and moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) were obtained.


The OSWEQ and IPAQ demonstrated test-retest reliability for MPA, VPA, and MVPA minutes and average MET·min·day−1 between T1-T2 (OSWEQ range, r = .71–.77; IPAQ range, r = .59–.79; all, P < .01). The OSWEQ and IPAQ, compared with the GT3X, had lower estimates (mean error ± 95% PI) of MVPA MET·min·day−1 by 150.4 ± 477.6 and 247.5 ± 477.5, respectively.


The OSWEQ demonstrates good test-retest reliability over 7-days and better group level estimates of MET·min·day−1 than the IPAQ, compared with the GT3X. These results suggest that the OSWEQ is a reliable and valid measure among young/working age adults and could be useful for monitoring PA trends over time.