A primary objective of sport marketers in the professional sport setting is to develop strategies to increase game attendance. Historically, one of the strategies to accomplish this goal has been the utilization of special promotions. This paper studied the impact of promotions on attendance at professional sport games. Specifically, this research examines (a) the overall effect of promotions on attendance, and (b) the marginal impact on attendance of additional promotional days. Using a data set containing 1,500 observations, we find that a promotion increases single game attendance by about 14%. Additionally, increasing the number of promotions has a negative effect on the marginal impact of each promotion. The loss from this watering down effect, however, is outweighed by the gain from having an extra promotion day.
Mark McDonald and Daniel Rascher
Mark A. McDonald and Kirsty Spence
Beth J. Sheehan and Mark A. McDonald
Scant research has been conducted on the relationship between experience-based courses and emotional competency development (Ashkanasy & Dasborough, 2003; Brown, 2003; Clark, Callister & Wallace, 2003; Jaeger, 2002). The current study utilized a mixed method design to determine if students’ emotional competency could be developed during only one semester without any formal instruction in emotional intelligence theory. Changes in the experimental group and differences between experimental and comparison group students’ emotional competency were investigated using quantitative (ECI-U) and qualitative (Critical Incident Interview and exit interview) methods. Study results supported the contention that an experienced-based course can positively impact students’ emotional competency development.
Lisa Pike Masteralexis and Mark A. McDonald
This article presents the results of a pilot study that found significant differences between U.S. and non-U.S. based international sport managers with regard to the educational background, language, and cultural training deemed essential for success in the global sports market. Educational and executive training programs in sport management should recognize sport's movement into a global market and consider providing students in their programs with the competency to compete for positions in sport on a global scale. To do so, sport management programs should offer a global perspective, which encompasses education for recognizing and avoiding potential barriers to effectively conducting sport business in societies where differences exist in language, culture, business, economics, and politics.
George R. Milne, Mark A. McDonald, William A. Button, and Rajiv Kashyap
This research examines the competitive niche positions of 36 sports and fitness activities reported in an American Sports Activities 1993 tracking study. The article discusses the advantages of viewing competition from an ecological niche perspective and presents a measure of competitive resource overlap (CRO) used in marketing for measuring niche breadth and niche overlap. The empirical study presents an intuitive mapping of the sports market and calculates the niche breadth and niche overlap for each sport. Managerial implications for sporting goods manufacturers, advertising agencies, corporate sponsors, fitness consultants, and other professionals interested in participant sports markets are given.
Kirsty K. Spence, Daniel G. Hess, Mark McDonald, and Beth J. Sheehan
As sport management graduates enter into a rapidly shifting industry with fluctuating environmental conditions, the need for greater leadership capacity arises (Amis, Slack, & Hinings, 2004). Sport management educators can facilitate leadership development by designing and administering undergraduate curricula that focuses on students’ vertical development. According to Cook-Greuter (2004), vertical development is defined as “how we change our interpretations of experience and how we transform our views of reality” (p. 276). The purpose of this paper is to outline a curricular framework that may impact students’ vertical development and thus increase future leadership capacity. To fulfill this purpose, the conceptual connection between vertical development, the Leadership Development Framework (LDF), and Experiential Learning (EL) is first explained. The curricular framework is then outlined in the context of a pilot study facilitated within a sport management (leadership) course in January 2008. Suggestions for future empirical projects to measure the impact of EL curricula on students’ vertical development are also offered.