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Michael McDougall, Mark Nesti and David Richardson

The challenges encountered by sport psychologists operating within elite and professional sports teams have arguably been inadequately considered (Nesti, 2010). It has been suggested that this may be due to the inaccessibility of elite team environments (Eubank, Nesti, & Cruickshank, 2014; Nesti, 2010). The purpose of this research was to examine the challenges facing practitioners who operate in elite environments and to illuminate how these were experienced. Qualitative interviews with six experienced applied sport psychologists were conducted and a narrative themed analysis undertaken. Four main themes emerged as most prevalent and meaningful: challenges to congruence, a broader role: managing multiple relationships, the influence of elite sport cultures, and surviving and thriving were presented in narrative form. Practitioners provided experiential insight into how specific challenges were understood and dealt with, and how they are able to provide an effective service while managing themselves and the demands of the environment.

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Barbara E. Ainsworth, Mark Richardson, David R. Jacobs Jr. and Arthur S. Leon

We examined gender differences in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in 50 women and 28 men using questionnaire data and identified how LTPA status may be misclassified based on physical activity questionnaire content. LTPA was determined using the Four Week Physical Activity History modification of the Minnesota LTPA questionnaire. LTPA was classified as total, light- (≤ 4.0 METS), moderate- (4.5-5.5 METS), and heavy-intensity (≥ 6.0 METs), and household LTPA. The questionnaire was administered 14 times (every 26 days). Scores were computed as kcal·day−1 and min·day−1 with the 14 visits averaged to yield one year LTPA scores. Skewed data were log-transformed and are presented as the geometric mean. There were no gender differences in kcal·day−1 for total- (385 vs 421), moderate- (28.2 vs 23.3), and light-intensity LTPA (72.2 vs 52.6, p > .05). Heavy-intensity LTPA was greater in men than in women (98.1 vs 50.5, p = 0.01), while household LTPA was greater in women than in men (238.2 vs 134.7, p < .0001). Omission of heavy-intensity LTPA from the questionnaire reduced total LTI’A by 25% in men and 12% in women. In contrast, omission of household LTPA reduced total LTPA by 35% in men and 57% in women. Thus LTPA may be underestimated and activity status misclassified if questionnaires fail to include activities with high gender-specific participation rates.

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Candi D. Ashley, Joe F. Smith, James B. Robinson and Mark T. Richardson

The purpose of this study was to use the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) to compare disordered eating pathology between female intercollegiate athletes and a control group of nonathletic subjects enrolled in an advanced program of study. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures revealed no significant difference (NSD) (p > .05) between any of the athletic groups or the control group on any EDI-2 subscale, and there was no significant difference between “lean” sports, other sports, and the control group. There was also NSD on EDI-2 subscale scores on the basis of age. African Americans had significantly lower scores on the Body Dissatisfaction and Impulse Regulation subscales than white Americans. Chi-square analysis revealed NSD between any groups in percentage of respondents scoring above anorexic norms. The results did not indicate a greater amount of disordered eating in female athletes compared to nonathlete controls.

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Eric J. Jones, Phil A. Bishop, James M. Green and Mark T. Richardson

This study compared the effects of a rapid bolus and a slower metered water-consumption rate on urine production and postexercise rehydration. Participants (n = 8) dehydrated by 2% body weight through moderate exercise in an environmentally controlled chamber (35 °C, 55% relative humidity). Breakfast and lunch were standardized for all participants during each 8-hr data-collection period. Rehydration was performed using a volume of water equal to that lost during exercise either as bolus consumption (100% of volume consumed in 1hr; BOL) or metered consumption (12.5% of volume every 30 min for 4 hr; MET). Urine volume was used to assess hydration efficiency (water retained vs. water lost) and net fluid balance at 8 hr. Mean urine outputs were 420 ml (MET) and 700 ml (BOL). A paired-samples t test showed that hydration efficiency was greater for MET (75%) than for BOL (55%; p = .018). These data suggest that metered administration was more effective in maintaining fluid balance. These findings suggest that rehydration rate is a factor in fluid-balance response. For situations in which available fluid volume is restricted, greater hydration efficiency is highly desirable.