The purpose of this study was to develop a brief physical activity interview for older adults (Phone-FITT) and evaluate its test–retest reliability and validity. Summary scores were derived for household, recreational, and total PA. Reliability was evaluated in a convenience sample from a fall-prevention study (N = 43, 79.4 ± 2.9 years, 51% male), and validity, in a random sample of individuals in older adult exercise programs (N = 48, 77.4 ± 4.7 years, 25% male). Mean time to complete the Phone-FITT was 10 min for participants sampled from exercise programs. Evaluation of test–retest reliability indicated substantial to almost perfect agreement for all scores, with intraclass correlation coefficients (95% confidence intervals) ranging from .74 (.58–.85) to .88 (.8–.94). For validity, Spearman’s rho correlations of Phone-FITT scores with accelerometer counts ranged from .29 (.01–.53) to .57 (.34–.73). Correlations of Phone-FITT recreational scores with age and seconds to complete a self-paced step test ranged from –.29 (–.53 to –.01) to –.45 (–.68 to –.14). This study contributes preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the Phone-FITT.
Dawn P. Gill, Gareth R. Jones, GuangYong Zou, and Mark Speechley
Catrine Tudor-Locke, Nicola Lauzon, Anita M. Myers, Rhonda C. Bell, Catherine B. Chan, Linda McCargar, Mark Speechley, and N. Wilson Rodger
To compare the effectiveness of a theory-based lifestyle physical activity (PA) program delivered to individuals with type 2 diabetes in diabetes education centers by professionals and peers.
Changes over 16 weeks in PA (steps/day) and related variables (weight, waist girth, resting heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures) were compared (RMANOVA) for two groups: 157 participants led by 13 different professionals versus 63 participants led by 5 peer leaders.
Overall, the 81 male and 139 female participants (age = 55.7 ± 7.3 years, BMI = 35.2 ± 6.6) showed an incremental change of 4,059 ± 3,563 steps/day, which translates into an extra 37 minutes of daily walking (P < .001). Statistically significant improvements were also seen in weight, waist girth, and blood pressure (all P < .001) and resting heart rate (P < .05). There were no significant differences in outcomes between professional and peer-led groups.
A theory-based behavior modification program featuring simple feedback and monitoring tools, and with a proven element of flexibility in delivery, can be effective under real-world conditions while addressing inevitable concerns about resource allocation. Program delivery by peer leaders, in particular, could address a potential obstacle to dissemination by helping to alleviate existing high caseload demands on diabetes educators.