Under the influence of the Sport for All movement the sport system in Switzerland has changed. Sport has become a leisure-time activity for an increasing number of people and has gained new meanings and forms. Many traditional limitations to participation appear to have been removed. By focusing on gender and age, this study, based on a survey of 1,103 employees, explores the extent to which particularisms and inequalities in contemporary recreational Swiss sport still exist. Although the involvement in sport by men and women, and involvement of different age groups, are quite similar in terms of frequency, their forms and meanings remain different. Using correspondence analysis we identify different sports fields and different sporting patterns by gender and age in terms of motives, places, and activities.
Markus Lamprecht and Hanspeter Stamm
Pamela Wicker, Christoph Breuer, Markus Lamprecht and Adrian Fischer
Size is a central characteristic of organizations. While previous studies point to size differences among nonprofit sport clubs, size effects have not yet been investigated systematically. The concepts of economies of scale and economies of scope are used to explain size advantages. Yet, club theory stresses that benefits from sharing production costs only exist until some point and decrease afterward. The purpose of this study is to examine size effects in sport clubs using data from two nationwide online surveys in Germany (n = 19,345) and Switzerland (n = 6,098). The results support the existence of economies of scope, since costs decrease with increasing number of different sports (not codes) offered in the same club. Yet, clubs only benefit from reduced costs until some point supporting club theory. Organizational size has a significant effect on various organizational problems. The findings have implications for the management of sport clubs and for policy makers.