Marlene A. Dixon
Marlene A. Dixon and Stacy Warner
Despite the overwhelming emphasis on job satisfaction in sport management research, scholars continue to advocate for the distinctiveness and importance of evaluating both job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The purpose of this investigation is to develop a model of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction for intercollegiate coaches. Fifteen head coaches participated in semistructured interviews. Results revealed a sport industry specific three-factor model. Desirable job factors (Player-Coach Relationships, Recognition, and Social Status) were related only to satisfaction. Industry Standard Factors (Sport Policy, Salary, Recruiting, Supervision, and Life Balance) were related only to dissatisfaction. Performance Dependent Factors (Flexibility and Control, Program Building, and Relationships with Colleagues) were related to satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The results support the distinctiveness of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction as constructs, and also demonstrate a continued need for examining job attitudes within context. As sport managers understand the particular expectations of their employees and their industry they can better diagnose and solve employee issues.
Kelly Huang and Marlene A. Dixon
As college athletic departments continue to seek additional sources of revenue to remain competitive, alcohol sales on game day increasingly has been considered as a potentially lucrative and untapped revenue source. Despite the seemingly high profitability from alcohol sales, the increased availability of alcohol coupled with its consumption by a large number of individuals has negative social consequences, including assaults, arrests, and other behavioral risks, causing potential ethical and social responsibility dilemmas for athletic departments and universities. Utilizing self-disclosed financial data (via interviews and documents) from a major college football program, this case study examines the financial implications of selling alcohol to the general public on football game days. Through proforma financial analysis, two revenue models are created to show the incremental revenue potential of alcohol sales. Results show that for this institution the incremental financial impact from alcoholic beverage sales does not create sufficient benefit to pursue this avenue of funding. This conclusion, however, must be examined within the larger resources, contextual constraints, and expectations of particular institutions for both competitive advantage and social responsibility.
Florian Hemme and Marlene A. Dixon
James Park has been hired as the new CEO by the board of directors of GoSports Inc., a large national sporting goods retailer, which has been battling economic and internal issues over the previous years. Despite Park’s experience at the helm of large companies in need of profound strategic and structural change, in his new position at GoSports he has been “butting heads” with a powerful collective of executives unhappy with the hire and threatened by the new CEO’s accolades. To complicate matters, rumor has it that the decision to hire Park was far from unanimous, with various factions vying for control in the company, waiting for a chance to fill the power vacuum a quick departure by Park would leave behind. After two weeks with the company, Park is called before the board of directors to report on the progress made and how he plans to return GoSports to its former glory.
Stacy Warner and Marlene A. Dixon
Sport programs are often charged with creating a sense of community (SOC), and it is thought that doing so will benefit participants on and off the field of play. Since SOC is specific to the setting (Hill, 1996) and most research has been conducted outside of sport, the literature has not yet fully demonstrated how and when SOC is created within a sport context. Utilizing a grounded theory and phenomenological approach, this study investigated the mechanisms for creating SOC within a sport setting. Twenty former US college athletes were interviewed regarding their sport experiences. The results revealed that Administrative Consideration, Leadership Opportunities, Equity in Administrative Decisions, Competition, and Social Spaces were the most salient factors that fostered SOC. The results contribute to community building theory, and provide practical solutions for enhancing the participant experience.
Katie Roach and Marlene A. Dixon
In small athletic departments, particularly at the NCAA Division III level, the challenge of building effective coaching staffs can be great because financial and other barriers often limit the pool of job applicants. This challenge is often addressed by hiring former athletes who have just graduated from the same program. This consultation-based study analyzed the positive and negative effects of hiring former athletes as assistant coaches within the same institution. Findings indicated that advantages of hiring former athletes include a reliable assessment of fit, quick time for socialization and valuable contribution, and already established trust between all parties. Disadvantages included limitations on specialization, a dearth of new ideas and new innovations, and issues caused by the role transition from former athlete to coach or assistant coach. Recommendations offered for practice include broadening the search for candidates, and for internal hires, external training and development, and assistance for role transitions.
Stacy Warner, Marlene A. Dixon and Christyn Schumann
Physical activity and sport developmental programs have demonstrated some success at providing valuable resources for young women as they navigate their teen years, yet these programs are not always intentional and/or accessible (Cadwallader, 2001; Petitpas, Cornelius, Van Raalte, & Jones, 2004; Tucker Center, 2007). One such program developed by the Women’s Sports Foundation is GoGirlGo. The curriculum, which combines sports participation with education, focuses on reducing and preventing unhealthy behaviors and on providing valuable connections and resources for girls. Using the theory of developmental intentionality, this qualitative investigation examined the efficacy of GoGirlGo in a five day long sport camp setting. This condensed delivery method is not addressed or recommended in the literature, yet the results of this investigation reveal that this delivery method is effective and could broaden the accessibility of the program.
Ted F. Burden and Marlene A. Dixon
Numerous studies have shown the high level of influence interscholastic coaches’ yield at their respective campuses (Côté & Fraser-Thomas, 2007; Fredericks & Eccles, 2006; Greendorfer, 2002). This influence is not confined to athletes only, but extends to a large portion of the general student body as well. Coaches, especially interscholastic coaches, can become centers of influence (COI) for physical fitness and physical activity participation throughout the entire student body. This often unsolicited influence can have dramatic effects on how non-participants view initiatives and opportunities encouraged by “their” coach. For example, coaches can personally recruit new athletes, provide mentoring, and/or encourage participation in after-school activities.
Darren D. Kelly and Marlene A. Dixon
Despite excellent performance on the field and years of academic and social attention, National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I African American male student-athletes continue to struggle to have an optimal and well-rounded college experience at predominantly White institutions of higher education. In particular, the first 2 years of college represent a difficult period during which this group would benefit from new ideas to support their multiple transitions. Mentoring, and more specifically constellation mentoring, provides great promise for aiding in the transition and success of this group (Kram, 1985). Mentoring, like other organizational transition management tools, focuses on helping people navigate a transition into a new setting (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, & Wright, 2010). However, constellation mentoring can be simultaneously broad (in terms of range of needs addressed) and specifically tailored to individual needs. This study seeks to establish a framework for how mentoring may provide a valuable tool for addressing the needs of African American male student-athletes as they transition into the college sport, social, and academic atmosphere.