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John H. Lewko and Martha E. Ewing

Children (N = 370), ages 9 to 11 years, responded to a fixed-alternative questionnaire which examined the influences of mothers, fathers, sisters, and brothers on the sport involvement of males and females. The following predictions were tested: (a) at similar levels of involvement (high or low), males would be discriminated from females by significant others; (b) value toward sport would discriminate between high- and low-involved males and females; (c) for high levels of involvement, fathers would be the most discriminating variable for both males and females. Within-sex discriminant analyses revealed fathers as predominant socializing agents for high-involved males, while all agents discriminated between high/low females. Between-sex discriminant analyses revealed significant differences only for high-involved males and females. Results were discussed in terms of early parental socialization practices and the support/encouragement necessary to increase sport involvement, particularly for females.

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Tracy W. Olrich and Martha E. Ewing

A significant amount of attention has been given to the psychological effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use in sport (Bahrke, Yesalis, & Wright, 1996). However, apart from a few selected case studies, a relative dearth of information has been provided concerning the subjective experience of people using AAS. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of 10 men who were using or had previously used AAS. The participants in this study were weight trainers with primarily a bodybuilding emphasis. All had used AAS at some point in their training experience. The study involved in-depth interviews focusing on the AAS use experience. Nine of the 10 men described their AAS use experience in a very favorable manner. The men perceived increases in muscle mass, strength, peer recognition, social status, sexual performance, and vocational performance. These findings are discussed relative to current AAS educational programs and interventions.

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Annelies Knoppers, Barbara Bedker Meyer, Martha E. Ewing and Linda Forrest

Data from 947 Division I college coaches in the United States were used to examine three hypotheses concerning the impact of gender ratio on the frequency of social interaction between women and men coaches. These hypotheses were based on (a) the structural perspective characterized by the politics of optimism, (b) the institutional approach associated with the politics of pessimism, and (c) the common consciousness or subculture perspective represented by the politics of transcendence. Most support was shown for the politics of pessimism, which contends that an increase of women in a male-dominated occupation is associated with rising gender boundaries and sex segregation. Results are explored in the context of gendered homosociality.

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Eric M. Martin, Martha E. Ewing and Daniel Gould

Significant social agents are thought to play a vital role in youth development (Brustad, Babkes, & Smith, 2001). The United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) commissioned a nationwide survey to examine the effect significant social agents had on youth sport behavior. In Phase I, initial data were collected and results were published in the Journal of Coaching Education (2011). The results of the previous analyses were largely descriptive, and further analyses were desired. Therefore, the current study (Phase II) is a secondary but more in-depth data analysis of the initial data collected by the USADA. Phase II analyses (n = 3379, Mage = 12.23, SD = 2.78) revealed that youth sport coaches have the greatest positive influence on youth followed closely by parents, but all of the significant social agents, to different extents, were seen as more positive than negative by youth. Results varied by developmental level, gender, and competitive level. Results, limitations, and practical implications are discussed.

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Dana Munk, Ramona Cox, Martha E. Ewing and Peggy McCann

There has been quite a surge of women’s professional football teams in the United States; however, football is rarely offered for girls at the youth sport, middle school, high school, or intercollegiate levels. While this lack of participation can be easily attributed to the contact sport exemption clause in Title IX, researchers have shown that litigation has changed the course for women by legally opening doors for opportunities in tackle football. Today, it is more likely the lack of opportunities for females in traditional male sports is because of stereotypical beliefs linked to their gender. Using qualitative methodology, researchers in this study explored stereotypical, discrepant, societal messages encountered by current professional female football players. Findings suggested societal reactions were linked to stereotypical beliefs about women in sports and included a lack of social support, discriminatory messages, and skepticism over girl’s ability to play contact sports. Implications for further study also emerged.

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Gail M. Dummer, Martha E. Ewing, Rochelle V. Habeck and Sara R. Overton

The attributions of 147 athletes with cerebral palsy who participated in the 1985 National Cerebral Palsy/Les Autres Games were investigated following competition relative to their reactions to objectively and subjectively defined success or failure. Attributions were the dependent variable in a 2 × 2 (More-Disabled/Less-Disabled × Win/Loss) MANOVA. Attributions were also analyzed in a 2 × 4 (More-Disabled/Less-Disabled × Satisfied/Dissatisfied, Winner/Loser) MANOVA designed to determine the influence of perceived success or failure upon causal explanations of performance. There were no significant differences in the use of attributions by gender; however, there were differences in the use of attributions across disability classifications. Disabled winners used both internal and external explanations to a greater degree than losers, which was inconsistent with previous literature. Previous results linking persistence in sport to the use of internal and stable attributions were supported. Subjective outcome, defined in terms of satisfaction with performance, was a more powerful explanation of achievement behavior for the disabled athletes in this study than objective outcome. Satisfaction was associated with demonstration of positive qualities such as using the right strategy and ability, with realistic assessment of ability, and with enjoying competition.

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Megan E. Holmes, Jim Pivarnik, Karin Pfeiffer, Kimberly S. Maier, Joey C. Eisenmann and Martha Ewing


The role of psychosocial stress in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome is receiving increased attention and has led to examination of whether physical activity may moderate the stress-metabolic syndrome relationship. The current study examined relationships among physical activity, stress, and metabolic syndrome in adolescents.


Participants (N = 126; 57 girls, 69 boys) were assessed for anthropometry, psychosocial stress, physical activity, and metabolic syndrome variables; t tests were used to examine sex differences, and regression analysis was used to assess relationships among variables controlling for sex and maturity status.


Mean body mass index approached the 75th percentile for both sexes. Typical sex differences were observed for systolic blood pressure, time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity, and perceived stress. Although stress was not associated with MetS (β = –.001, P = .82), a modest, positive relationship was observed with BMI (β = .20, P = .04).


Strong relationships between physical activity and stress with MetS or BMI were not found in this sample. Results may be partially explained by overall good physical health status of the participants. Additional research in groups exhibiting varying degrees of health is needed.