Background: While the popularity of aquatic physical activities continues to grow among women, the effects on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite control remain unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of water temperature during aqua-cycling session on EE, rate of perceived exertion, energy intake, appetite sensations, and food reward in healthy premenopausal women. Methods: Participants completed three experimental sessions, in the postprandial condition, in a randomized order: a land control session (CON), an aqua-cycling session in 18 °C (EXO18), and an aqua-cycling session in 27 °C (EXO27). The EE, food intake, appetite sensations, and food reward were investigated for each condition. Results: EXO18 induced a significant increase in EE (p < .001) and oxygen consumption (p < .01) compared with EXO27. The carbohydrate oxidation was higher in EXO18 session compared with EXO27 and CON (p < .05 and p < .001, respectively). While fat oxidation was higher in exercise sessions compared with CONT (p < .01), no difference was observed between EXO18 and EXO27. Exercise sessions did not alter absolute energy intake session but induced a decrease in relative energy intake (p < .001) and in hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption compared with CON (p < .001). The authors also show here that cold-water exposure can increase EE while rate of perceived exertion is lower at the end of exercise session compared with same exercise at 27 °C (p < .05).Conclusion: An exposure to a moderately cold-water during aqua-cycling is an efficient strategy to promote increased EE and decreased hunger, which may be effective for energy balance management in healthy premenopausal women.
Lore Metz, Laurie Isacco, Kristine Beaulieu, S. Nicole Fearnbach, Bruno Pereira, David Thivel, and Martine Duclos
Salomé Aubert, Julien Aucouturier, Caroline Ganière, Alicia Fillon, Pauline Genin, Julien Schipman, Benjamin Larras, Corinne Praznoczy, Martine Duclos, and David Thivel
Julien Aucouturier, Caroline Ganière, Salomé Aubert, Fabien Riviere, Corinne Praznoczy, Anne Vuillemin, Mark S Tremblay, Martine Duclos, and David Thivel
Many countries publish periodic Report Cards on physical activity for children and youth. This paper presents the results from the first French Report Card providing a systematic synthesis and assessment of the national engagements to facilitate childhood physical activity.
A search for nationally representative data on 8 indicators of physical activity was conducted and the data were assessed by an expert panel according to international procedures. Whether children across France are achieving specific benchmarks was rated using an established grading framework [A, B, C, D, F, or INC (incomplete)]. Data were interpreted, grades assigned and detailed in the 2016 Report Card that was produced and disseminated.
The expert panel awarded the following grades: Overall Physical Activity: INC; Organized Sport Participation: D; Active Transportation: D; Sedentary Behaviors: D; Family and Peers: INC; School: B; Community and the Built Environment: INC; Government Strategies and Investment: INC.
The grades reveal that efforts must be done to improve youth’s physical activity and that several gaps in the literature still need to be addressed. Collectively the results highlight that children’s physical activity levels are low and that further national supports and investments are needed to promote childhood healthy active living in France.
Alicia Fillon, Pauline Genin, Benjamin Larras, Jeremy Vanhelst, Maxime Luiggi, Salome Aubert, Charlotte Verdot, Olivier Rey, Lena Lhuisset, Julien Bois, Nicole Fearnbach, Martine Duclos, and David Thivel
Background: There is an alarming and constant worldwide progression of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors in children and adolescents. The present paper summarizes findings from France’s 2020 Report Card on physical activity for children and youth, comparing its results to its 2 previous editions (2016 and 2018). Methods: France’s 2020 Report Card follows the standardized methodology established by the Active Healthy Kids Global Matrix, grading 10 common physical activity indicators using the best available evidence. The grades were informed by national surveys, peer-reviewed literature, government and nongovernment reports, and online information. Results: The expert panel awarded the following grades: Overall Physical Activity: D; Organized Sport Participation and Physical Activity: C−; Active Play: INC; Active Transportation: C−; Sedentary Behaviors: D−; Family and Peers: D−; Physical Fitness: D; School: B−; Community and the Built Environment: F; Government: C. Conclusions: This 2020 edition of France’s Report Card again highlights the alarming levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviors among French children and adolescents, calling for the development of effective national action. It also draws attention to the particular deleterious effects of the COVID-19 confinement on youth’s movement behaviors, which significantly worsened the situation.
Julie Masurier, Marie-Eve Mathieu, Stephanie Nicole Fearnbach, Charlotte Cardenoux, Valérie Julian, Céline Lambert, Bruno Pereira, Martine Duclos, Yves Boirie, and David Thivel
There is a growing interest regarding the effect of exercise on appetite and energy intake in youth. While the role of exercise intensity has been a primary focus of study, the effect of exercise duration on subsequent food intake has not been fully examined in obese adolescents. On three separate mornings in a randomly assigned order, obese adolescent girls (n = 20) aged 12–15 years old were asked to perform a rest session (control, CON) or two cycling sessions for 20 (EX20) or 40 min (EX40) set at their ventilatory threshold. Absolute and relative energy intake were measured from an ad libitum lunch meal 30 min after rest or exercise and appetite feelings assessed using visual analogue scales throughout the day. Hunger, satiety, and prospective food consumption were not significantly different between conditions. Absolute energy intake (kcal) did not differ between conditions, while relative energy intake on EX40 (571 ± 381 kcal) was significantly lower than during CON (702 ± 320 kcal; p < .05) and EX20 (736 ± 457 kcal; p < .05). Fat ingestion (in grams) was significantly lower on CON (7.8 ± 3.2 g) compared with EX20 (10.3 ± 4.6 g; p < .01). Protein intake (in grams) was higher on EX20 (37.0 ± 16.6 g) compared with both CON (29.5 ± 11.7 g; p < .01) and EX40 (33.1 ± 10.9 g; p < .05). However, the percentage of total energy derived from each macronutrient was not different between conditions. Obese adolescent girls do not compensate for an acute bout of exercise set at their ventilatory threshold by increasing energy intake, regardless of the exercise duration.
David Thivel, Pauline Genin, Alicia Fillon, Marwa Khammassi, Johanna Roche, Kristine Beaulieu, Graham Finlayson, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Martine Duclos, Angelo Tremblay, Bruno Pereira, and Lore Metz
Background: While mental work has been shown to favor overconsumption, the present study compared the effect of a cognitive task alone, followed by acute exercise, or performed on a cycling desk, on short-term food intake and appetite in adults. Methods: A total of 19 normal-weight adults randomly completed: resting session (CON), 30-minute cognitive task (CT), 30-minute cognitive task followed by a 15-minute high-intensity interval exercise bout (CT–EX), and 30-minute cognitive task performed on a cycling desk (CT-CD). Energy expenditure was estimated (heart rate–workload relationship), and energy intake (EI; ad libitum) and appetite (visual analog scales) were assessed. Results: Energy expenditure was higher in CT-EX (P < .001) compared with the other conditions and in CT-CD compared with CON and CT (P < .01). EI was higher in CON (P < .05) and CT-CD compared with CT (P < .01). Relative EI was higher in CON compared with CT (P < .05) and lower in CT-EX compared with CT, CT-CD, and CON (all Ps < .001). Area under the curve desire to eat was higher in CON compared with CT (P < .05) and CT-EX (P < .01). Area under the curve prospective food consumption was higher in CON compared with CT-EX (P < .01). Overall composite appetite score was not different between conditions. Conclusion: While cycling desks are recommended to break up sedentary time, the induced increase in energy expenditure might not be enough to significantly reduce overall short-term relative EI after mental work.
Salomé Aubert, Julien Aucouturier, Jeremy Vanhelst, Alicia Fillon, Pauline Genin, Caroline Ganière, Corinne Praznoczy, Benjamin Larras, Julien Schipman, Martine Duclos, and David Thivel
Background: Insufficient levels of physical activity and increasing sedentary time among children and youth are being observed internationally. The purpose of this paper is to summarize findings from France’s 2018 Report Card on physical activity for children and youth, and to make comparisons with its 2016 predecessor and with the Report Cards of other countries engaged in the Global Matrix 3.0. Methods: The France’s 2018 Report Card was developed following the standardized methodology established for the Global Matrix 3.0 by grading 10 common physical activity indicators using best available data. Grades were informed by national surveys, peer-reviewed literature, government and nongovernment reports, and online information. Results: The expert panel awarded the following grades: overall physical activity, D; organized sport participation and physical activity, C−; active play, INC; active transportation, C−; sedentary behaviors, D−; physical fitness, B–; family and peers, INC; school, B; community and the built environment, INC; and government, C. Conclusions: Very concerning levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviors among French children and youth were observed, highlighting the urgent need for well-designed national actions addressing the presented physical inactivity crisis. The top 3 strategies that should be implemented in priority to improve the lifestyle of French children and youth are provided.
Pauline Manon Genin, Céline Lambert, Benjamin Larras, Bruno Pereira, Jean-François Toussaint, Julien Steven Baker, Angelo Tremblay, David Thivel, and Martine Duclos
Background: The French National Observatory for Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors conducted a national survey aiming to evaluate the potential effects of confinement on the population’s physical activity levels and sedentary behaviors. Methods: In close collaboration with the French Ministry of Sports and a selected expert committee, 3 different questionnaires investigating 3 subgroup populations were included in the survey: (1) children, (2) adolescents, and (3) adults. Results: Forty-two percentage of children, 58.7% of adolescents, 36.4% of adults, and 39.2% of older people had reduced physical activity levels. Particularly, active transportation and endurance practices showed a significant decrease, while domestic, muscular strengthening, and flexibility activities increased. Sitting time and screen time increased, respectively, in 36.3% and 62.0% of children, 25.5% and 69.0% in adolescents, 24.6% and 41.0% in adults, and 36.1% and 32.1% in seniors. Conclusion: The COVID-19 confinement period led to important modifications in individual movement behaviors at all ages, particularly favoring decreased physical activity and increased sedentariness. These findings suggest that the authors need to inform and encourage people to maintain and improve their physical activities and to change their sedentary time habits during postconfinement and during the period of a potential future lockdown.