Interventions involving exercise and diet can reduce the progression of Type 2 diabetes, yet they are often short-lived. Progressing toward self-managed maintenance is also challenging. If supports are in place to help individuals with behavior changes beyond immediate programming, they are more likely to maintain these changes. This is particularly the case for women, who often struggle to maintain diet and exercise changes and can benefit from social support. Small Steps for Big Changes is a 3-week counseling program housed in a local YMCA that aims to help people make exercise and diet changes. To understand how to best support women in maintaining these changes beyond program delivery, a knowledge-sharing event was held for 14 women who completed the intervention. The women engaged in a focus group to share challenges they had experienced in making diet and exercise changes and recommendations for continued support. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis, and three recommendation areas were identified: (a) establishing peer support networks, (b) creating platforms to communicate prediabetes-related information, and (c) providing ongoing trainer support. Several recommendations have been implemented to support these women, and other individuals, postprogram. This case provides insights and recommendations for integration of initiatives beyond delivery of a behavior-change program housed in a community organization.
Corliss Bean, Tineke Dineen, and Mary Jung
James D. Sessford, Mary Jung, Lawrence R. Brawley, and Jennifer L. Forbes
Among older adults, preserving community mobility (CM) is important for maintaining independent living. We explored whether perceptions of the environment and self-efficacy for CM (SE-CM) would predict walking performance for tasks reflecting CM. We hypothesized that perceptions of the environment and SE-CM would be additive predictors of walking performance on tasks reflecting the complexity of CM. Independent living older adults (N = 60) aged 64-85 completed six complex walking tasks (CWTs), SE-CM, and the environmental analysis of mobility questionnaire (EAMQ). Multiple regression analyses indicated that for each CWT, the EAMQ scales predicted walking performance (range: model R2Adj. = .078 to .139, p < .04). However, when SE-CM was added to the models, it was the sole significant predictor (p < .05). Contrary to our hypotheses, SE-CM was the best predictor in the additive models. SE-CM may be more correspondent to walking tests and thus a more sensitive predictor of CM walking performance.
Kelly P. Arbour, Amy E. Latimer, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis, and Mary E. Jung
This study examined whether the positive impressions formed of able-bodied exercisers extend to people with a physical disability. Participants (226 women and 220 men) read a description of a man or woman with a spinal cord injury who was described as an exerciser, nonexerciser, or control, and then rated the target (i.e., the person being described in the vignette) on 17 personality and 9 physical dimensions. Results revealed significantly more favorable ratings for the exerciser than both the nonexerciser and control on almost all dimensions. Additionally, the male control target was rated more favorably than the female counterpart on three personality and two physical attributes. Evidently, the exerciser stereotype may undermine negative impressions of people with physical disabilities.
Nic Martinez, Marcus W. Kilpatrick, Kristen Salomon, Mary E. Jung, and Jonathan P. Little
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has many known physiological benefits, but research investigating the psychological aspects of this training is limited. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the affective and enjoyment responses to continuous and high-intensity interval exercise sessions. Twenty overweight-to-obese, insufficiently active adults completed four counterbalanced trials: a 20-min trial of heavy continuous exercise and three 24-min HIIT trials that used 30-s, 60-s, and 120-s intervals. Affect declined during all trials (p < .05), but affect at the completion of trials was more positive in the shorter interval trials (p < .05). Enjoyment declined in the 120-s interval and heavy continuous conditions only (p < .05). Postexercise enjoyment was higher in the 60-s trial than in the 120-s trial and heavy continuous condition (p < .05). Findings suggest that pleasure and enjoyment are higher during shorter interval trials than during a longer interval or heavy continuous exercise.
A. Justine Dowd, Toni Schmader, Benjamin D. Sylvester, Mary E. Jung, Bruno D. Zumbo, Luc J. Martin, and Mark R. Beauchamp
The objective of the studies presented in this paper was to examine whether the need to belong can be used to enhance exercise cognitions and behavior. Two studies examined the effectiveness of framing exercise as a means of boosting social skills (versus health benefits) for self-regulatory efficacy, exercise intentions, and (in Study 2) exercise behavior. In Study 1, inactive adults primed to feel a lack of social belonging revealed that this manipulation led to greater self-regulatory efficacy (but not exercise intentions). In Study 2, involving a sample of inactive lonely adults, all participants reported engaging in more exercise; however, those in the social skills condition also reported a greater sense of belonging than those in the health benefits comparison condition. These findings provide an important basis for developing physical activity interventions that might be particularly relevant for people at risk for feeling socially isolated or lonely.