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Mary Lou Veal

Noting that current research has revealed a substantial gap between pupil assessment theory and the practices of secondary teachers, this study examined not only what teachers are doing, but also why they select and use certain practices. Assessment was observed in at least three classes for each of 13 selected secondary teachers, and descriptions of specific assessment practices were obtained through formal and informal interviews. School documents and teacher-developed assessment instruments were also examined in order to add depth to descriptions. The bulk of the data consisted of field notes from interviews and observations, which were analyzed qualitatively. Frequency indices were also prepared to allow easier viewing of patterns in the data. Ninety specific assessment practices were identified. Of the 90 total instances, 16% were preassessment, 30% were formative assessment, and 54% were summative assessment. Analysis of emergent themes indicated that teachers’ assessment practices were influenced by the effort and improvement of their students, and that teachers individualized their assessments. Teachers also identified conditions under which they used assessment including the determination of the purpose or utility of each technique as well as efficiency of administration.

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Mary Lou Veal and Nick Compagnone

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G. Linda Rikard and Mary Lou Veal

Twenty-three physical education cooperating teachers were interviewed in order to examine their preparation for becoming supervisors and their supervisory beliefs and practices. Most cooperating teachers had no formal preparation for their supervisory roles and shared no common technical language. Instead, they applied Lortie’s (1975) apprenticeship of observation by acquiring supervisory knowledge and images of supervision primarily from memories of their own student teaching supervision and their experiences as teachers. These cooperating teachers assumed one of three supervisory styles with student teachers: (a) “do it your way,” (b) “do it my way,” and (c) “we’ll do it together.” The feedback ranged from very little feedback to providing both positive and negative feedback to student teachers. This study indicates an urgent need to establish a model of systematic, data-based supervision for all cooperating teacher. Suggestions for changes in physical education supervision are included.

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Jayne M. Jenkins and Mary Lou Veal

Peer coaching has recently been incorporated into teacher training programs in order to help novice teachers learn theory and incorporate teaching skills, models, and methods into the classroom. Although recent research on peer coaching has identified an increase in the reflective practice of preservice teachers (PTs), few researchers have examined how teacher knowledge develops in the coaching experience. The purpose of this study was to describe the kinds of knowledge exhibited by 8 PTs during coaching activities, and how the roles of teacher and coach contributed to knowledge development during an elementary physical education field-based methods course. Data collection included observations, postlesson conferences, and daily written reports. Results revealed that pedagogical content knowing (PCKg) developed differently in the roles of teacher and coach. Growth in the teaching role resulted initially from interaction of two knowledge components (i.e., students and pedagogy), and later from interaction of three or more components (subject matter, environmental context, and general pedagogical knowledge).