This paper reviews three of our recent studies on human muscle architecture in vivo. 1. Hypertrophic changes: From B-mode ultrasonograms, pennation angles and thickness of triceps brachii were determined for normal subjects and highly-trained bodybuilders. There was a significant correlation between muscle thickness and pennation angles. It was confirmed that hypertrophy was accompanied by an increase in pennation angles. 2. Variation of fascicle architecture: Fascicle lengths and pennation angles were obtained from different positions in the gastrocnemius muscle while the subjects relaxed and performed isometric plantar flexion. The fascicle length was uniform throughout the muscle and shortened by contraction (30-34% at 50% of the maximal force). On the other hand, pennation angles differed among positions and increased by contraction. The muscle thickness did not change by contraction. Pen-nation angles were significantly correlated with muscle thickness within muscle. 3. Joint position-fascicle length relationships: Ultrasonic images of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were obtained while the subject performed maximal isometric plantarflexion at various joint positions, from which fascicle lengths and angles were determined. The length-force relationship of each muscle was estimated. It was suggested that human muscle architecture has an ability to make substantial changes to adapt to environmental conditions.
Yasuo Kawakami, Yoshiho Ichinose, Keitaro Kubo, Masamitsu Ito, Morihiro Imai and Tetsuo Fukunaga
Sergio Lara-Bercial, Andy Abraham, Pascal Colmaire, Kristen Dieffenbach, Olivia Mokglate, Steven Rynne, Alfonso Jiménez, John Bales, José Curado, Masamitsu Ito and Lutz Nordmann
Sport coaching is at a pivotal moment in its short history. The publication of the International Sport Coaching Framework by the International Council for Coaching Excellence (ICCE) in 2013 has drawn attention to coaching world-wide and fostered a step change in the way coaching systems are understood and built. Within this evolving context, higher education institutions are increasingly playing a greater role in the education and development of coaches in many countries. One way in which they are doing so is through the delivery of partial or full sport coaching degrees. ICCE recognises this emerging landscape. In this article we present an introduction to the newly developed International Sport Coaching Bachelor Degree Standards. The Standards are the culmination of a 12-month process of cooperation and consultation between an expert group and the coaching community at large. They aim to respond to the needs of higher education institutions and serve as an internationally accepted reference point to aid the development of bachelor coaching degrees that prepare coaches to effectively support athletes and participants.