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Masato Kawabata and Rachel Evans

The present study examined the extent to which scores on the Flow State Scale-2 (FSS-2) could differentiate individuals who experienced flow characteristics in physical activity from those who did not. A total of 1,048 participants completed the Japanese version of the FSS-2. Latent class factor analysis (LCFA), which combines the strengths of both latent class analysis and factor analysis, was conducted on the FSS-2 responses. Four classes were identified through a series of LCFAs and the patterns of the item-average scores for the nine flow attributes were found parallel among these classes. The top two classes (15.1% and 38.9% of the whole sample) were considered the groups who experienced flow characteristics during their physical activities. These results indicated that individuals who experienced flow attributes in physical activity could be differentiated from those who did not based on their FSS-2 scores. Criteria for classifying individuals into the two groups were proposed.

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Chiew Min Lye and Masato Kawabata

Purpose: The present study aimed to explore possible factors that have contributed to students’ boredom in physical education (PE) lessons. Methods: A total of 19 teachers (53% females and 47% males) and 112 students (50% females and 50% males) from two co-educational primary schools completed a set of questionnaires. A focused group discussion was then conducted with 20 students to further examine the relationship between situational factors and boredom. Results: Findings showed that overall, students highly enjoyed PE lessons and had low levels of anxiety and boredom. However, 20% of the participants agreed that they often experience boredom in PE lessons. In relation to the experience of boredom, a multiple regression analysis revealed that three variables (opportunity costs, monotony, and generalized boredom) were significant predictors of students’ boredom scores. Conclusions: The PE teacher ought to consider the set of significant predictors of boredom when developing lesson plans and instructional strategies aimed at alleviating the negative emotional experiences.